52 terms

Human Geography AP Geographers and Models

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Jared Diamond
Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997); Geographic luck (Environmental determinism)
Carl Sauer
Discussed Cultural geography; fierce critic of environmental determinism; his ideas supported cultural ecology
Julian Steward
Suggested while the environment influences the character of human adaptation, it does not determine it.
Wilbur Zelinsky
A student of Carl Sauer; A cultural geographer who, for six decades, has been an original and authentic voice in American cultural geography
Alfred Wegener
Continental drift (1915): Hypothesized that the continents were slowly drifting around the Earth. His hypothesis was not accepted until the 1950s, when numerous discoveries provided conclusive evidence (plate tectonics).
Ernst Ravenstein
Created the Laws of Migration (1885), Gravity Model
Laws of Migration
Most migration is due to economic causes
Migration increases with economic development
Most migration is over a short distance, and often occurs in steps
Long-range migrants usually move to urban areas
Large towns grow more by migration than by natural increase
Each migration produces a movement in the opposite direction (often not the same size)
Rural dwellers are more migratory than urban dwellers
Within their own country females are more migratory than males; Males are more migratory over long distances
Most migrants are adults
Gravity Model
Shows that interaction is proportional to the multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them; this phenomenon is distance decay (the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interactions)
Thomas Malthus
Gave a dystopian view of the future (1798); Food production increases arithmetically, whereas human reproduction increases geometrically (doubling each generation); despite checks on population, there would continue to be starvation.
Esther Boserup
Discussed that population growth stimulates intensification in agricultural development (stimulates technology) rather than being increased by agricultural output (Malthus upside-down); The rate of food supply may vary but never reaches its carrying capacity because as it approaches the threshold, an invention or development increases food supply, however, the depletion of nutrients creates diminishing returns.
Karl Marx
Contended that capitalism promotes class struggle and an unequal distribution of wealth (and food); socialism promotes the equal distribution of power and wealth (and food).
Warren Thompson
Created the Demographic Transition model.
The Demographic Transition Model
A model used to represent the process of explaining the transformation from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. It has 4 definitive stages:
In stage one (high stationary), pre-industrial society, death rates and birth rates are high and roughly in balance.
In stage two (early expanding), that of a developing country, the death rates drop rapidly due to improvements in food supply and sanitation, but without a corresponding fall in birth rates this produces an imbalance, resulting in a large increase in population.
In stage three (late expanding), birth rates fall due to access to contraception, increases in wages, urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes. Population growth slows.
In stage four (low stationary) there are both low birth rates and low death rates due to the expansion of wealth and technology.
"Stage five" (hypothetical), birth rates may drop to well below replacement level as has happened in countries like Germany, Italy, and Japan, leading to a shrinking population. This may be a threat to many industries that rely on population growth, and would likely create an economic burden on the shrinking working population.
Abdel Omran
Thought of the Epidemiological Transition (1971).
The Epidemiological Transition
Occurs as a country modernizes. Developments in medicine (e.g., antibiotics such as penicillin), drastically reduces mortality rates and extends life expectancy. Further development and urbanization results in declining fertility rates, and a transition to chronic and degenerative diseases as more likely causes of death. This occurs in three phases:
1. Age of Pestilence and Famine: mortality is high and fluctuating (low population growth); low and variable life expectancy (20 to 40 years)
2. Age of Receding Pandemics: mortality progressively declines; average life expectancy increases steadily (30 to 50 years); population growth begins to be exponential
3. Age of Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases: mortality continues to decline and eventually approaches stability at a relatively low level
Alfred Mahan
Sea Power (1890): discussed the influence and importance of sea power; explained Britain's dominance (19th c.) and the value of a strong navy. His ideas, in part, led to a naval arms race prior to World War I (mostly between Britain and Germany)
Friedrich Ratzel
German geographer who discussed geopolitics (1901) and more specifically, lebensraum ("living space"). His organic theory postulated that a country, which is an aggregate of organisms (people), would itself function and behave like an organism ... to survive, a state requires nourishment - in the global context, this means territory - to gain political power
Halford Mackinder
Heartland Theory (1904): the resource-rich, land-based "pivot area" (Heartland) would be key to world dominance (controlled by the USSR at that time; diametrically opposed to Mahan's contention of sea power;
"Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland;
Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island;
Who rules the World-Island controls the world."
Nicolas Spykman
Rimland Theory (1944): the Eurasian Rimland, not the Heartland would be key to global power; the Rimland would be important in containing the Heartland; Britain, US and USSR would be the main power players; other regions would possess specialized importance in the world (e.g., the oil-rich Middle East).
"Who controls the rimland rules Eurasia;
Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world."
*He is known as the "godfather of containment" (the US Cold War strategy)
Marija Gimbutas
Introduced the Kurgan Hypothesis (1950s)
The Kurgan Hypothesis
States the Proto-Indo-European (P-I-E) language diffused from modern day Ukraine through conquest.
Colin Renfrew
Introduced the Anatolian Hypothesis (1987)
The Anatolian Hypothesis
States the P-I-E language spread through the innovation of agriculture rather peacefully with Anatolia (modern day Turkey) as the hearth.
Joel Garreau
The Nine Nations of North America (1981); He argues that North America can be divided into nine regions, or "nations", which have distinctive economic and cultural features; he contends that conventional national and state borders are largely artificial and irrelevant, and that his "nations" provide a more accurate way of understanding the true nature of North American society. In 1991, he discussed the development of edge cities as autonomous loci of economic activity on the urban fringe of US cities away from the CBD.
The Nine Nations of North America
The Empty Quarter (Canada and Northwest U.S.)
Ecotopia (The Far Northeast U.S. and Canada)
Mexamerica (Southwest U.S. Near Mexico)
The Breadbasket (The Midlands of the U.S. and South Canada)
Dixie (Southeast U.S.)
The Foundry (The Northeast U.S., where the Great Lakes are)
New England (The Northeast corner of the U.S., basically where Maine and New Hampshire is)
Quebec (Self-Explanatory, no?)
The Islands (The islands off of North America like Cuba and the Bahamas, and the Central American countries of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, etc.)
Johann von Thünen
Created the Isolated State model (1826)
The Isolated State Model
Discussed agricultural location as primarily a factor of transportation cost and profit maximization by farmers through his model. For the image to the left - the black dot represents a city; 1 (white) dairy and market gardening; 2 (green) forest for fuel and building materials; 3 (yellow) grains and field crops; 4 (red) ranching; the outer, dark green area represents wilderness where agriculture is not profitable.
Norman Borlaug
Has been called the father of the Green Revolution. During the mid-20th century, he led the introduction of varieties of high-yielding seeds (wheat) combined with modern agricultural production techniques (irrigation, chemical farming, etc.) to Mexico, Pakistan, India, and later to China. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 in recognition of his contributions to world peace through increasing food supply.
Ernest Burgess
Created the Concentric Zone Model (1925). Future models would be updates of this model.
His work is based on bid-rent (the amount that people will pay for the land) (Ex: wealthier families tended to live much further away from the CBD because they could afford automobiles)
The Concentric Zone Model
Structural model of the American central city (based on Chicago in the 1920s); the zones identified are:
1) the central business district (CBD);
2) the transition zone of mixed residential, factory, and commercial use (low residential density);
3) low-class residential homes (the "inner city" with high residential density);
4) better quality middle-class homes (with lower density than the previous zone)
5) upper-class commuters zone (with the lowest density)
Homer Hoyt
Created the Sector Model (1939)
The Sector Model
Improvements in transportation made the Burgess Model more obsolete. Hoyt (the creator of this model) observed that zones expanded outward from the city center along electric trolley lines, railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries; wedge-shaped patterns -- or sectors -- emanating from the CBD and centered on major transportation routes.
James Vance, Jr.
Created the Urban-Realms Model (1964)
The Urban-Realms Model
Each realm is a separate economic, social and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metropolitan framework. Independent suburban downtowns are the foci of the urban realms, yet they are within the sphere of influence of the central city and its metropolitan CBD.
Walter Christaller
Created the Central Place Theory (1933).
The Central Place Theory
Designed to explain the spatial distribution of human settlements. Central places are settlements providing services to their surrounding "market areas". The ordering of settlements based on the number and level of services they provide produces a hierarchy. Hierarchies are often complicated because market areas of different-order settlements overlap (shown as solid and broken lines).
The theory relied on two main concepts:
Threshold - the minimum market needed to bring about the selling of a good or service.
Range - the maximum distance people will travel to acquire the good or service.
Four generalizations can be made regarding the spacing, size and function of settlements. The greater the size of the central place:
1. the fewer they are in number;
2. the greater the distance between them;
3. the greater the number and range of functions;
4. the greater the number of higher-order services (e.g., arenas, universities, museums, zoos, etc.)
John Borchert
Came up with the idea of four (with a fifth added) epochs in American urbanization.
Those are:
1. Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) - pre-industrial transportation modes
2. Iron Horse Epoch (1830-1870) - impact of the steam engine; development of steamboats and regional railroad networks
3. Steel Rail Epoch (1870-1920) - long haul railroads and a national railroad network
4. Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-1970) - growth in the gasoline-powered internal combustion engine (automobiles, airplanes)
5. High-Technology Epoch (Satellite-Electronic-Jet Propulsion) (1970-?) - modern technology has facilitated suburbanization and metropolitan decentralization
Alfred Weber
Created the Least Cost Theory (1940s)
The Least Cost Theory
A variable cost analysis emphasizing the motive of manufacturing plants to pursue cost minimization along three areas: 1) transportation, 2) labor, and 3) agglomeration (too much can lead to high rents and wages, circulation problems - and ultimately to deglomeration); in the weight-losing case, firms locate closer to the raw materials to reduce cost (e.g., metal smelting, paper products); in the weight-gaining case, firms locate closer to the market (e.g., bottling, bread products).
Harold Hotelling
Created the Linear City Model (1929)
Hotelling's Law (The Linear City Model)
A variable revenue analysis emphasizing the motive of producers and suppliers to pursue profit maximization. The law illustrates the locational interdependence of producers and suppliers, as the site that generates the greatest spatial monopoly, and therefore the greatest profit, will be sought after.
August Lösch
Discussed Profit Maximization (1954)
Profit Maximization
Often considered the most important market area analysis. The correct location of a firm lies where the net profit is greatest (sales income - production costs). A number of different points may appear as optimal due to the substitution principle (an increase in one cost (e.g., transportation) offset by a decrease in another cost (e.g., labor)). These series of points, connected, mark the Spatial Margin of Profitability (not a single point as Weber had contended).
Walter Rostow
Introduced the liberal Modernization Model (1960)
The Modernization Model
A liberal model (stating that all states may develop in the sane way); postulates that economic modernization occurs in five basic stages:
1) Traditional society - economy focuses on mostly subsistence or primary-based activities; society is rigid, negatively viewing change
2) Preconditions for takeoff - development of more productive commercial and cash crops, increased investment and technology; social mobility begins as elite promote change
3) Takeoff - a critical mass of resource exploitation, labor, and capital propel the society toward secondary activities with a few leading industries; export-oriented
4) Drive to Maturity - diversification of industries shift to more domestic consumption; rapid development of transportation and social infrastructure (e.g., bridges and schools)
5) Age of Mass Consumption - modernization and urbanization diffuses throughout the country; industrialization dominates, but a rise in tertiary (and quaternary and quinary) activities results; most have disposable income beyond basic needs (e.g., automobiles)
Immanuel Wallerstein
Introduced the World-Systems Analysis (1974-89)
The World-Systems Analysis
A three-tiered structuralist model (stating that regional disparities are the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic and political system, and therefore cannot be changed easily).

It postulates a "one-world" economic and political framework (not focusing on the independent economies of nation-states). The global division of labor consists of one economy divided between the "core" (most developed countries (MDCs) - e.g., US, UK, Japan) which dominates other countries; the "semi-periphery" (Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) - e.g., Brazil, China, India) which is dominated (by the core) while at the same time dominating others (the periphery); and the "periphery" (Least Developed Countries (LDCs) - e.g., Congo, Zambia, Haiti) which is dominated due to dependency on the more powerful global economies.
Chauncy Harris
In addition to Edward Ullman, he created the Multiple Nuclei Model (1945)
On his own, introduced the Peripheral Model (Galactic City Model)
The Multiple Nuclei Model
Based on the idea that people have greater movement due to increased car ownership. This increase of movement reduced the primacy of the CBD and allowed for the specialization of regional centers (e.g., nuclei such as light manufacturing, business parks, residential areas, etc.).
The Peripheral Model (Galactic City Model)
The US urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by transportation nodes (e.g., a beltway or ring road to avoid traffic congestion). The periphery acts as a functional metropolitan complex, not a series of separate CBDs. It represents urban decentralization (with an increase in edge cities) and the US transcendence into a post-industrial society (from predominantly secondary economic activities to tertiary, quaternary, and quinary activities).
Edward Ullman
In addition to Chauncy Harris, helped create the Multiple Nuclei Model (1945).
On his own, introduced His own Conceptual Framework.
Ullman's Conceptual Framework
Proposed that interaction and trade was based on four phenomena:
1. Complementarity - the needs of one region match the products of another (e.g., Florida orange juice shipped to the Northeast US)
2. Intervening opportunity - the presence of a nearer opportunity diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
3. Transferability - the ease (or difficulty) in which goods may be transported from one area to another
4. Comparative advantage - ability of a region to specialize in an economic activity, such as production, at a lower cost and greater efficiency than another region