APUSH Chapter 7
Terms in this set (38)
Judith Sargent Murray
Published an essay in 1784, defending the right of women to education, and arguing that men and women were equal in intellect and potential. Women, therefore, should have the same educational opportunities as men, to earn their own livings and to establish roles for themeselves in society apart from their husbands and families. Her ideas attracted relatively little support.
What Jefferson and his followers liked to think of Native Americans, it meant uncivilized but not necessarily uncivilizable.
A Connecticut schoolmaster and laywer, who was an author of widely used American spellers and dictionaries. He echoed sentiments arguing that the American schoolboy should be educated as a nationalist. "As soon as he opens his lips," he wrote, "he should rehearse the history of his own countrey; he should lisp the praise of liberty, and of those illistrations heroes and statesmen who have wrought a revlution in her favor."
A man from New York whose popular folk tales, recunting the adventures of such Americans ristics such as Ichabod Crane and Rip Van Winkle, made him the widely acknowledged leader of American literary life in teh early eighteenth century.
Originated among Enlightenment philosophers in France, it attracted such educated Americans as Jefferson and Franklin and by 1800 was reaching a moderatley broad popular audience. People involved in this accepted the existance of God, but they considered Him a remote being, who, after having created the universe, had withdrawn from direct involment with the human race and its sins.
Second Great Awakening
In 1801, when traditional religion staged a dramatic comeback in the form of a wave of revivalism. The origins of the Awakening lay in the efforts of conservative theologians to fight the spread of religious rationalism and in the efforts of church establishments to revitalize their organizations. Basic message was that individuals must readmit God and Christ into their daily lives
An extraordinary revival that lasted several days and impressed all who saw it with its size ( estimated 25,000 people) and its fervor. It happend at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in the summer of 1801, when a group of evangelical ministers presided over this, which it was the first of its kind in the nation.
The brother of a black preacher who devised an elaborate plan in 1800, for a slave rebellion and an attack on Richmond. The plan was discovered and foiled in advance by whites.
A Seneca who broughtforth the most important revivalism with his efforts, and whose seemingly miraculous "rebirth" after years of alcoholism helped give him a special stature within his tribe. He called for a revival of traditional Indian ways. This meant repudiating the individualism of white society and restoring the communal quality of the Indian world. His message spread through the scattered Iroquois communities and inspired Indians to give up whiskey, gambling, and other destructive customs derived from white societies. He also encouraged Christian missionaries to become active within the tribes, and he encouraged Iroquois men to give up their ways of hunting and try farming, and women were to move to more domestic roles.
A man who used the knowledge he had aquirred before leaving England to build a spinning mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, for Quaker merchant Moses Brown in 1790.
Invented a machine that preformed the arduous task of removing the seeds from short-staple cotton quicky and efficiantly. It was dubbed the cotton gin ("gin" was derived from "engine"). This device enabled a single operator could clean as much cotton in a few hours as a group of workers could in a whole day. This made cotton spread throughout the South rapidly. This man also introduced the concept of interchangable parts. Because machines were needed everywhere and becoming more important, they needed a way for owners to have access to spare parts, and that the parts would be made so that they would fit the machines perfectly. He also designed machine tools that could manufacture its component parts to exact specifications. The U.S govt. later commisioned him to make 1,000 muskets for the army with interchangable parts.
An inventor who, along with the promoter Robert Livingston, they made significant advances in steam-powered navigatin that made possible the launching of a steamboat large enough to carry passengers. The Clermont, the name of the first steamboat, equipped with paddled wheels and an English-built engine, sailed up the Hudson in the summer of 1807.
The Turnpike Era
In 1774, when a corperation constructed a toll road running the sixty miles from Philadelphia to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, with a hard-packed surface of crushed stone, which provided a good year-round surface with effective drainage (but was very expensive to use). This venture proved so successful that similar turnpikes were laid out from other cities to neighboring towns. The process of building these, however, was a difficult one. Builders had to adjust to elevation levels a lot because very few horse-drawn vehicles could travel up more than a five-degree incline. This required many roads to avoid climbing straight up steep hills, and building roads over mountains was an insurmountable task and no one was successful in doing so until they had govt. funding.
The French architect who designed the capital on a grand scale. Many Americans envisioned that the raw, uncompleted town of Washington D.C. would soon emerge as a great majestic city, and he was the man to do it.
Appointed the Secratary of Treasury by Jefferson, he drastically reduced govt. spending by cutting it down from 83 million to 45 million.
A Military Acadamy founded in 1802, by Jefferson while he was reducing the army and the navy.
Marbury v. Madison
In 1803, the first case in which the courts declared a congressional act unconstitutional. It involved William Marbury, one of Adams's "midnight appointments," who had been named jutsice of the peace in the District of Columbia. But his commission, although sealed and signed, was not delivered to him before Adams left office. The when Jefferson took office, his secratary of state, James Madison, refused to hand over the commission. Marbury asked the Surpreme Court to direct Madison to preform his official duty. The Court did rule that while Marbury had the right to his cmmission, they had no authority to order Madison to deliver it. This seemed to be a victory for the administration on the surface. But of much greater importance than the insignificant matter of Marbury's commission was the Court's reasoning in the decision.
Made himself ruler of France in 1801, as the first consul, then four years later made himself the emperor. He wanted to restore French power in the New World, and in doing this he wanted back the land west of the Mississippi, which belonged to Spain. In 1800, under the secret Treaty of San Ildefnoso, France regained title to Louisiana, which included almost the whole of the Mississippi Valley to the west of the river. Napoleon hoped that this territory would become the heart of the French empire in America.
The Louisiana Purchase
An agreement established on April 30, 1803, between Livingston and Monroe, and Napoleon. In the terms of the treaty, the United States was to pay a total of 15 million dollars to teh French Govt. The U.S also had to grant certain exclusive commercial privledges to France in the port of New Orleans and was to incorperate the residents of Louisiana into the Union with the same rights and privledges as ther citizens.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
One of the men assisting on the Lewis and Clark journey, 26 years old, led an expedition in the fall of 1805 from St. Louis into the upper Mississippi Valley, then later up the valley of the Arkansas River and later into Colorado, his account of the lands led Americans to think that this area was a vast land of desert that couldn't be cultivate.
A group of the most extreme Federalists in Massachusetts who concluded that the only resourse for New England was to secede from the Union and form a seperate "northern confederacy." If they were going to succeed as a seperate nation they needed New York, New Jersy, as well as New England. Leading Federalists in New York, like Hamilton, refused to support this sheme.
Hamilton and Burr
Burr was trying to run for governor of New York in 1804, and was rumored to support the Federalists in their plans fr succession. Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason and made numerous private remarks, widely reported in the press, about Burr's despicable character. When Burr lost the election he blamed Hamilton, and challenged him to a duel. Hamilton accepted fearing if he didnt, he would be seen as a coward. An so, in July 1804, the two met at Weehawken, New Jersy. Hamilton was mortally wounded, and died the next day.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy
Occured when the American ship called the Chesepeake was hailed by the British ship Leopard. When the the American commander, Jason Barron, refused to allow the British to search the ship, the Leopard opened fire. Barron had no choice to surrender, and a boarding party dragged four men off the American frigate. When news of this incident reached the U.S. their was great popular clamor for revenge. Jefferson also expelled all Birtish warships from American waters.
A drastic measure passed in 1807, it prohibited American ships from leaving the U.S. for any foreign port anywhere in the world. This law was widely evaded but it was effective enough to create a serious depression throughout most the nation. A few days before Jefferson left his office, however, he decided to back down and approved a bill ending his experiment with what he called "Peacable Coercion."
Replaced the Embarg act and was passed just befre Madison took office. It reopened all trade with all nations except Great Britian and France. A year later in 1810, this act expired and was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2. This reopened free commercial relations with Britian and France but allowed the pres. to prohibit commerce with either belligerent if it should continue violating nuetral shipping after the other had stopped.
William Henry Harrison
Born in Virginia, and was a veteran Indian fighter at age twenty six. He went to Washington as a congressionl delegate from the Northwest territorry in 1799. He was an advocate in development in the western land, he was largely responsible for the passage in 1800 of the so-called Harrison Land Law, which enabled white settlers to aquire farms from the public domain on much easier terms than before. In 1801, Jefferson appointed him governor of Indian Territory to administer the president's proposed solution to the Indian problem.
Tenkswatawa the "Prophet"
A charasmatic religous leader and orator. He had experienced a mystical awakening in the process of recovering from alcoholism. He freed himself from what he considered the evil effects of white cuture. So he began to speak to his people of superior virtues of Indian civilization and the sinfulness and corruption of the white world. He inspired a religous revival, that spread through many tribes and united them. With their unity of religion they also united military forces. He aslo had a brother named Tecumseh. Who was known as the "shooting star." Believed that the only way for Native Americans to protect their homeland against white settlers was to form a confederacy, a united Native American nation.
Battle of Tippecanoe
was fought in 1811 between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and forces of Tecumseh's growing American Indian confederation. This defeat of the Indians, drove Tecumseh into an alliance with the British. This infuriated the Americans and set them against the British. Was a major event leading to the war of 1812.
A group of determined young congressmen who supported the want of the American people to engage in war. Some of these include Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. They were both men of great intelligence, magnitism, ambition, and were both recently elected to the house of representatives. They both supported the war with Great Britain.
Oliver Hazard Perry
Was the reason that the Americans were able to seize control of Lake Erie. He engaged and dispersed a fleet of British ships at Put-in Bay on September 10, 1813.
Battle of the Thames
William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and on October 4, 1813, won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest.
A wealthy Tennessee planter and a general in the state militia, set off in the pursuit of the creeks. On March 27, 1814, in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, his men took terrible revenge on Indians, slaughtering women and children along with warriors. The tribe agreed to to cede most of its lands to the United States and retreated westward. This battle also won him a commission as major general in the United States Army.
Battle of New Orleans
January, 1815 - A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army's battle plans. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
When Federalists became a minority, in all states except New England, ideas of secession reached a climax and delegates from all New England States met in Hartford, Connecticut, December 15, 1814, to discuss grievances against the Madison administration. There ideas of secession became irrelevant when news of a peace treaty and victory in New Orleans reached the states.
Treaty of Ghent
American and British diplomats met in Ghent, Belgium, where both sides began with extravagant demands, but the final treaty changed very little except end the fighting itself. The Americans gave up their demands for the end of British impressments, and Canada, while the British abandoned their call for the creation of an Indian buffer state in the Northwest and made other, minor territorial concessions; the final treaty was signed Christmas Eve, 1814.
1817, it provided for mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes; eventually (although not until 1872) the Canadian-American boundary became the longest "ungaurded frontier" in the new world.