Geography 221 Exam 1
Terms in this set (58)
Anything as long as it has a spatial perspective.
Asking the questions where and why?
Data which can't be ranked.
Data which as a value.
Observe, recognize, and state the problem. Ask questions. Propose explanations and make testable predictions. Collect data. Draw conclusions -- reject or accept hypothesis.
4 (6) Spheres of Geography
Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Pedosphere, Cryosphere
Set of interrelated components with complete links.
Open & Closed.
Hydrologic cycle, rock cycle, biogeochemical cycle, diurnal cycle, seasonal cycle, Milankovic cycle.
Level of structure or organization at which a phenomenon is studied.
Larger the scale, smaller the area covered.
Sub-discipline of Geography that focuses on displaying spatial data and making maps.
Contour lines showing slope.
Closed circles with these marks indicating depressions.
Contours with divets that point upstream.
Height above sea level
Distance below sea, lake, or river level.
Difference in elevation between two features
Cross-section view of a landscape
Shows the degree, an angle formed relative to the horizontal plane and the drop per distance.
Parallels (latitude) and meridians (longitude) on the surface of the globe. Used to fix location of surface points.
Series of great circles, lines that divide the earth in half.
Angle between 3 points: Center of earth, Prime Meridian, and point on meridian.
Divide the earth in half; shortest route between two points.
Small circles and one great circle.
Angle between 3 points: Center of earth, equator, and point on a parallel.
Point from a central meridian in a UTM system.
Point from the equator in a UTM system.
Geometric Representation of the earth's 3d surface on a 2d surface.
Sinusoidal - Portions of earth omitted to reduce distortion.
Cylindrical - No distortion at the equator, but increases with increasing latitudes.
Conical - Parallels are concentric circles. Distortion increases at edges. Useful for showing similar latitudes.
Planar - Projection based on a single point. Useful for showing polar regions.
Written: One inch equals one mile.
Representative Fraction: 1:24,000
Verbal: Combo of written & representative
Oblate Ellipsoid -
Shape of earth in 2D. Oblate spheroid in 3D.
This is the outcome of centrifugal force. When spinning, things shift to the outside.
Discovery of Round Earth
Aristotle used the earth's shadow on the moon. Eratosthenes then discovered it by shadows in Alexandria & Aswan. He is considered the father of Geography.
Amount of incoming solar radiation.
Earth makes a complete rotation every 24 hours. This imposes a "rhythm" in daylight, air temp, air humidity, and air motion.
One sun circuit
Time of the highest solar angle at a given location
Used with the calculation of the sun at a selected median. IE, Oshkosh's Solar Noon is 11:45 AM.
Earth's axis is tilted to 23.5˚.
Long-term average weather of a particular location (30 years), typically includes average, minimum, and maximum temperatures and average annual rainfall and snowfall.
Graphical representation of climate for a location that includes average temperature and precipitation for each month.
Study of atmospheric phenomena along many different spatial and temporal scales.
Microscale - (<.5 km/.3 mi or seconds-minutes)
Local scale - (<5 km/3.1 mi or minutes-hours)
Mesoscale - (<100 km/62 mi or hours-days)
Synoptic scale - (<10,000 km/6,214 mi or days-weeks)
Planetary scale - (up to 40,000 km/24,855 mi or weeks-months)
Nitrogen - 78.08%
Oxygen - 20.95%
Carbon dioxide - .039%
All others - .003%
Lowest layer of the atmosphere. First 5-12 miles above the earth's surface. Layer in which nearly all weather and climate occurs. Top of the troposphere is the tropopause
Second layer of atmosphere, characterized by increases in temperature with height because of ozone absorption. Life wouldn't exist without o-zone.
Factors that produce climate of a given area.
-High/Low pressure areas
-Local factors (Lake-effect snow, Urban Heat Islands)
These inequalities in temperature and salt/fresh water result in a globally connected deep ocean conveyor belt.
ABCDF system. Vegetation is the best indicator of climate.
Largest subdivision of terrestrial ecosystems; dominated by plants because of their large biomass which is the dry weight of all living organisms in an area.
The edges of biomes which is distributed by climate.
Edaphic factors (soil make-up), Geomorphic Factors (Slope, leeward/windward, elevation), and disturbances (wildfire, landslides, humans)
Geographically distinct groups of natural plant communities with boundaries that approximate the original extend prior to major land use change (867).
Forest - Dominated by trees
Savanna/Subtropical Scrub and Woodland - small trees, brushes, and grass.
Grassland - Dominated by grass w/ few trees.
Desert - Sparse vegetation due to low rainfall.
Tundra - Dominated by shrubs, grasses, and lichens due to extreme cold.
Six major types:
Needleleaf, Low latitude rainforest, Monsoon forest, Subtropical evergreen, Midlatitude deciduous, Sclerophyll.
Conifers - straight trunked, cone shaped trees.
Most forests have 1-2 species.
Boreal/Taiga is found at high altitudes.
Little animal diversity.
Low Latitude Rainforest
Equatorial and tropical. Mostly closed canopy so ground cover is sparse.
Largest diversity of species.
Emergent trees with buttresses roots which give trees stability.
Lianas - rooted plants that grow up the sides of trees.
Epiphytes - plants which grow on trees.
Mid-latitude Deciduous Forest
Tall, broadleaf trees that lose leaves in winter. Seasonal temperature patterns. Oak, hickory, elm, walnut, maple.
Adapted to Mediterranean climate. Extensive areas of scrub, which are shrubs covering 1/2 the ground, and woodland, trees with an open canopy. The woodland is the most unique forest and is just in the mediterranean.
Tropical grassland with xerophytic trees, which have adapted to dry conditions. Widely spaced trees.
Tall Grass Prairie - many forbs such as wildflowers. Grasses are deeply rooted and form thick turf
Short-grass Prairie/Steppe - Buffalo grass is typical, sunflowers, and loco weeds. Much bare soil exposed.
Lack of moisture controls desert distribution.
Semi-deserts consist of spare xerophytic shrubs; expanding from steppes due to overgrazing. Spiny shrubs, succulent plants (cacti) and hard grasses.
Major Deserts of North America
Great Basin (Utah, Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and California)
Mojave (Cali, Nevada, Arizona)
Sonoran (Arizona, California, and Mexico)
Chihuahuan (Texas, New Mexico, Mexico)
Found at high latitudes (arctic tundra) and high altitudes (alpine tundra). Surface has a permafrost which melts in the summer forming bogs/marshes.
Cryoturbation breaks roots, keeping plants small. Low diversity
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