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Science Study Guide! (Cells, 3rd Nine Weeks, Ch. 5, and Heredity)

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Discuss what all cells have in common, regardless of whether or not they are prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
Small, cell membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and heredity materials
Identify the parts of cell theory.
1. cells are made of other cells
2. cells are the basic unit of life
3. organisms are composed of 1 or more cells
Explain what might be a problem associated with a cell not having DNA.
It will die with no one to replace it.
Imagine you are a biologist in a research lab, while working one day you discover a group of cells that are missing lysosomes. What might be the outcome of the discovery?
You will have waste in your body because lysosomes get rid of them.
Compare and contrast the cell wall with a cell membrane.
Cell wall- provides strength and support
Cell membrane- barrier between the inside of the cell and its environment
Our bodies are made up of a lot of water. We also know that our bodies are made up of millions of cells. Discuss what might happen if our cells vacuoles were to be damaged, and could not work properly.
We will have too much water in the cells
From which organelle are cells able to gain energy needed to perform cellular functions?
chloroplasts
Describe why the Golgi Complex is important to the cell.
It processes and ships proteins and other materials out of the eukaryotic cell
Explain the primary function of the ribosomes
Animo acids are hooked together to make proteins
How does the nucleus control the cell's activities?
It contains the DNA and the control center
Explain how consumers are critical to the survival of consumers in terms of energy
They make food and the consumers eat it. They get energy from the food.
Why might your muscle cells require more food when there is a lack of oxygen present than when there is plenty of oxygen present?
Without oxygen there is no energy and they need energy from food.
How many chromatids are present in a chromosome at the beginning of mitosis?
2
List the stages of the cell cycle and briefly describe them.
Interphase- cell makes 3 sets of DNA and organelles also double
Mitosis- Material migrate to both ends of the cell so it can split
Cytokinesis- it splits
Discuss what might happen if a cell skipped over the anaphase step in mitosis, and went straight to Cytokinesis.
It would split one cell to where one of the cells would have nothing in it.
In which cells do you expect to have greater amounts of mitochondria, active or not active and why?
Active, because they use a lot of energy and energy hold mitochondria
Discuss the egg lab.
Vinegar, corn syrup, and green food colored water
Briefly describe how bacteria reproduces during binary fission.
The cells grow, DNA replicates and attaches to the cell membrane, DNA and its copy separate and cell grows larger and it splits in 2.
Many bacteria cannot reproduce in cooler temperature or hotter temperatures. How do humans take advantage of this?
Pack food in freezers and microwaves or stoves.
How can bacteria both cause and cure diseases?
Cure- antibodies
Cause- gives you bad bacteria and disease
Describe some problems humans might face with no bacteria around.
Only environment would suffer, but we would die because we wouldn't get any oxygen from plants
Explain the role of bacteria in recycling.
Recycles decaying plants and turns harmful pollutants into harmless chemicals
What would happen if one generation of the Influenza virus never found a host?
It would die.
Do you think that modern transportation has had an affect on the way viruses are spread? Explain.
Yes, because if you sneeze, then touch transportation, you will spread it.
What is the difference between the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle? Explain.
The lysogenic cycle takes a longer time period to destroy the its host cell. The lytic cycle kills the cell in a short time.
Imagine a nuclear power plant exploded and wiped every living thing within a 15 mile radius. What kind of organisms do you think might colonize first?
Archaebacteria
How are viruses like and unlike living things?
They contain protein and nucleic acid and they don't eat, grow, function, or breathe.
What are three main types of archaebacteria?
Methane makers, heat lovers, and salt lovers
What are the three main shapes of bacteria?
Cocci, Spirilli, and Bacilli
Compare and contrast dominant and recessive traits.
Both are traits, both appear, both can be passed down, but dominant shows more often, recessive must be pure bred to show, and dominant always shows over recessive
Describe what punnett squares are used for.
To determine the possibility that a genotype will show for children from two parents.
Explain what heredity is.
It is the passing of traits from parent to offspring
Who was Gregor Mendel?
The man that introduced dominant and recessive traits by using pea plants
What did Gregor Mendel choose as his test subject and why was that particular organism a good choice?
Pea plants, and you have visible traits and they are easy to test
What is co-dominance and how is it best shown in humans?
When you mix two traits and both appear and blood types
Describe the relationship between genotype and phenotype.
Genotype is the genes and Phenotype is the looks
What is incomplete dominance, and what is a good example of it in humans?
When you mix two traits and get a trait in between and wavy hair
What is probability, and how does it relate to genetics?
The mathematical chance that an event is likely to occur, and there is a probability that you will have a certain gene.
Discuss what happened in Mendel's first experiment.
He crossed two traits, round (dominant), and wrinkled (recessive), and the round seeds showed with all of them.