Chapter 20- Chemical Texture Services
Terms in this set (55)
Permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
Also known as cold waves; they have a pH between 9.0-9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat.
Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is a very little odor associated with their use.
Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.
Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)
Position of the tool in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
Also known as protective base cream; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing
Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also, the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped.
Refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section; base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.
Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
Also known as straight set wrap; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal and are the same length and width as the perm rod.
Basic permanent wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair end like an envelope.
Perm wrap where base sections are offset from each other row by row to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair; similar to the technique of bricklaying.
Bricklay permanent wrap
A process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.
Chemical hair relaxing
Hair services that cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
Chemical texture services
Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.
Perm in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.
Croquignole perm wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
Curvature permanent wrap
Strong chemical side bonds formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together.
Perm wrap in which one end paper is places under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
Double flat wrap
Also known as piggyback wrap; a wrap technique whereby extra-long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
Also known as end wraps; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.
Perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood- type hair dryer.
Create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing.
Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions.
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.
Half off-base placement
Weak physical side bonds that are also the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges; they are easily broken by water (wet setting) or heat (thermal styling), and they re-form as the hair dries or cools.
An acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13; the hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers.
Long, coiled polypeptide chains.
Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a lanthionine bond.
Also known as circle rod; tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
Perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate.
Ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium, potassium, or lithium) which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen.
Metal hydroxide relaxers
Relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream.
Conditioners with an acidic pH that restore the hair's natural pH before the final neutralizing shampoo.
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so the rod is positioned completely off its base.
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.
Also known as end bonds; chemical bonds that join amino acids together, end-to-end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains.
A two-step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods; the hair then undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer.
Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
Disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together.
Perm wrap that is similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped.
Single flat wrap
Tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length.
Soft bender rods
A thio based chemical service that reformats curly and wavy hair into looser and larger curls and waves.
Soft curl permanent
Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the stripes on a candy cane.
Spiral perm wrap
Perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area.
The most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions.
Stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebuilds the hair in its new curly form.
Use the same ammonium thioglycolate that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10)
Perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.
Thio free waves
Have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process; they process more slowly than alkaline waves, and they do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves.
True acid waves
The measurement of the thickness of thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows.
Wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.