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Terms in this set (97)
BDI- biography-driven instruction
A research-based instructional method that emphasizes reciprocal facilitation & navigation of the official classroom space and the unofficial space of students' lives outside the classroom, which draws on assets of both spaces to promote culturally responsive teaching and learning.
BICS- basic interpersonal communication skills
The language ability needed for casual conversation, which usually applies to the interpersonal conversation skills of CLD students (ie: playground language)
CALLA- cognitive academic language proficiency
A method of instruction that is grounded in the cognitive approach and focuses on the explicit instruction of learning strategies and the development of critical thinking as a means of acquiring deep levels of language proficiency
CLD- culturally and linguistically diverse
A preferred term for an individual or group of individuals whose culture or language differs from that of the dominant group
CREDE- Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence
Now based out of the University of Hawaii; a diverse team of experts who provide educators with a variety of tools to implement best practices for CLD students, including the standards for effective pedagogy: 1. Joint Production Activity 2. Language and Literacy Development 3. Contextualization 4. Challenging Activities 5. Instructional Conversation
CUP- common underlying proficiency
The conceptual knowledge that acts as the foundation on which new skills are built. Both languages, L1 and L2, facilitate the development of such fundamental cognitive patterns within individuals. The language biographies serve as a bridge, connecting new informaiton with previously acquired knowledge
EFL- English as a foreign language
The use or study of the English language by non-native speakers in communities and/or countries where English is not the dominant language of communication.
ELD- English language development
A term used in some states for the programming model most commonly referred to as English as a second language (ESL).
ELL- English language learner
A term for individuals who are in the process of transitioning from a home or native language to English. However, CLD is the preferred term because CLD emphasizes both the cultural and linguistic assets that a student brings to the classroom
ESL- English as a second language
A programming model in which linguistically diverse students are instructed in the use of English as a means of communication and learning. This model is often used when native speakers of mulitple first languages are present within the same classroom.
ESOL- English for speakers of other languages
Instruction that focuses primarily on the development of vocabulary and grammar as a means of learning English
i + 1- comprehensible input
New information that an individual receives and understands that is one step beyond his or her current stage of competence. Accordingly, if the learner is competent at stage i, then understandable input at i + 1 is most useful for language progression.
ICB- integrated content-based
A communicative method that involves the concurrent teaching of academic subject matter and second language acquisition skills. This method often employs thematic units as well as content and language objectives across subject areas.
L1- first language
The first or native language acquired by an individual
L2- second language
The second language acquired by an individual
NCLB- No Child Left Behind
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law by President George W. Bush on Jan 8, 2002. Designed to clos the achievement gap between disadvantaged students and their peers, this U.S. education reform calls for greater accountability for assessment results in K-12 educaiton.
OCR- Office for Civil Rights
The entity fo the U.S. Department of Justice responsible for exacting compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
SDAIE- specially designed academic instruction on English
A variation of sheltered instruction that emphasizes a cognitively demanding, grade-level appropiate core curriculum for CLD students. This variation primarily applies to students who have attained an intermediate or advanced level of proficiency in L2 (English)
SIOP- sheltered instruction observation protocol
A vehicle for delivering scaffolded instruction of the existing curriculum so that instruction is more comprehensible for students who are acquiring English
SUP- separate underlying proficiency
The separate conceptual kowledge bases in L1 and L2, assuming that the two languages operate independently. According to this perspective, no transfer of skills occurs between the two languages.
WIDA- World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment
Per the 2012 Amplification of the ELD standards, there are 5 levels of language proficiency ascribed to CLD students. 1) Entering 2) Emerging 3) Developing 4) Expanding 5) Briging. The 6th level, Reaching, ends the continuum, rather than establishing another level of languages proficiency. In other words, the CLD student has met all the requirements determined in Level 5. Model performance indicators (MPIs) provide malleable guidelines for pre K-12 students' processing or production of English in specific contexts.
a mindset that adheres to locating and maximizing the cultural identity of CLD students and families and the associated assets that they offer, such as cultural values and insights, familiarity with multiple cultures and ethnicities, and experience with other languages
a mindset in which CLD studets are viewed as liabilites, or deficits, that characterize the hopelessness of appropiate educational accommodations for the students, instead of viewing the assets that the CLD students bring to the school and classroom
suggests that everyone is provided opportunites and resources, based on individual need, in order to ensure that everyone achieves the same outcome
no matter one's position, everyone would be given the same opportunities and resources, therefore assuming these opportunites and resources, therefore assuming these opportunities and resources would be beneficial
one of the four dimensions of the CLD student biography that encompasses the complex social and cultural factors and variables that are critical to the transitional adjustments and the academic success of CLD students. This dimension often holds the key to thorough understanding of the other three dimensions and thus is referred to as the "heart" of the CLD student biography
culture of the school
the practices and preceptions that positively or negatively influence CLD students' experiences within the school, including (dis)respect for non-English native languages, minority/ majority cultures, emphasis on equality and meriocracy versus equity, as well as other challenges placed on CLD students
the process of adjusting to a new or non-native culture
according to Krashen, the CLD student is able to best incorporate new information when the input the student receives is one step beyond his or her current stage of comprehension
affective filter hypothesis
Krashen argues that the amount of input reaching the CLD student is influenced by a number of affective variables, including anxiety, self-confidence, and motivation
cultural and psychosocial processes that influence the performance, behaviors, and resiliency of CLD students inside and outside the classroom
the hypothesis that there are four stages of the acculturation process that occur over time: the honeymoon phase, the hostility phase, the humor phase, and the home phase
the development of a student's self esteem, cultural identity, social identity, interpersonal relationships, and community building, which all profoundly influence her or his level of performance in the classroom
one of the four dimensions of the CLD student biography that involves the apparent aspects of the curriculum and instruction that students receive from preK classrooms to high school graduation and beyond. Equally important to this dimension is an understanding of the often hidden aspects of access, engagement, and hope that help students overcome the differential academic challenges that they encounter in relation to curriculum, instruction, and academic policy
academic language development
building of vocab and language skills required for success in decontextualized, cognitively demanding communicative situations and language-learning tasks frequently found in educational settings
a strong emotional response to what is being taught/ learned that helps students remember what they learn
one of the four dimensions of the CLD student biography that involves thee multiple ways in which teacher can capitalize on what students know, what/ how students think about their learning process(es), and ways in which they apply their learning. Additionally, this dimension is concerned with student's background knowledge which highlights the interrelatedness of this dimension and the sociocultural dimension
cognitive learning strategies
strategies that involve the mental or physical manipulation of info including classification, linking new info to prior knowledge, and summarizing
the level of cognitive engagement required of CLD student sto deal with small amounts of complex information that they are asked to process and assimilate
the level of cognitive engagement required of CLD students to deal with significant amounts of relatively simple info that they are asked to process and assimilate
constructivisit learning environments
classroom situations that emphasize students' construction of meaning through connections between their prior knowledge and the new language and concepts being taught. Such environments make possible cognitive-linguistic and cognitive- sociocultural connections at the contextual, intracultural, intercultural, and affective levels
the presence of readily avaiable paralingual cues, such as the context in which the discourse occurs, body language, and prior knowledge, to facilitate meaning construction
the presence of few, if any, paralinguistic cues to facilitate meaning construction. therfore, meaning must come from the language itself
teacher efforst to situate instruction in ways that promote meaning and relevance for students, given their individual student biographies. As such, contextualization requires teachers to know, document, and utilize- in instructional planning and lesson implementation- the assets that each student brings to the classroom form his or her background
the mental manipulation of new informaiton. in this process, a CLD student compares new info with know info and draws analogies form his/ her existing background knowledge; this process applies to all four literacy domains: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. by first assessing the prior experiences and knowledge that CLD students bring to the classroom and then guiding them to make curricular connections to those experiences and understandings, teachers encourage students to build on their prior knowledge
the ways in which student prefer to think, relate to others, and engage in classroom environments and experiences. Students' perferred learning styles are largely influenced by their socialization and cognitive development in the primary or home culture
metacognitive learning strategies
strategies that incorporate three domains; awareness of one's own cognitive abilities, the ability to discern the difficulty of a task, and the knowledge of how and when to use specific strategies
courses of study that incordinately focus on basic skills, redundant workbooks, drill-and-practice approaches to instruction, rote memorizaiton of decontextualized facts and declarative knowledge, isolated practice of computations, and repetitive routines that target the retention of basic test-taking strategies
level of significance attached to info that arises from the learner's cultural lens, which filters incoming info according to schemata established by long-standing socialization in that culture
social/ affective learning strategies
strategies that capitalize on the interconnectedness of the cognitive and the sociocultural dimensionsof the CLD student biography; they may involve the learner as an individual or the learner in interaction with another or others
reflects the theory that children are born without any linguistic knowledge, so all language learning is a result of the environment
the level of language expertise that enables users to express and decipher messages and to interpersonally mediate meaning within particular contexts; includes four areas of language knowledge: grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence, and strategic competence
communicative language learning environment
a classroom, for example, in which a teacher provides multiple opportunities for academic language interaction through fostering the construction of meaning from context and communication
an ability to combine, recombine, and connect language utterances into a meaningful product that is promoted through interactive language instruction focusing on use of language for authentic communication
first language acquisition
the process through which children learn their first language; there are multiple theories that explain how the first language is acquired: the behaviorist theory, the innatist theory, and the interactionist theory
an ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and use them effectively in communica- tion; this ability is developed through curriculum and instruction that prepares the CLD student to incorporate and apply the language code.
reflects the theory that learning is natural for human beings, meaning that babies enter the world with an inborn device to learn language.
reflects the theory that language develops through interaction, and that language acquisition is similar to the acquisition of other skills and knowledge.
one of the four dimensions of the CLD student biography that emphasizes the CLD student's language proficiency in both the first language and the second language (as well as in any additional languages) within the scope of comprehension, communication, and expression.
natural order hypothesis
extensive instructional and contextual support in the early stages of learning, followed by a gradual withdrawal of such support as the student's performance suggests independence.
the first stage of the second language acquisition process, also known as the prepro- duction stage, in which the student may not com- municate except in nonverbal ways. During this period, the CLD student is primarily listening to the new or target language and trying to under- stand its patterns and rules before attempting production in that language.
an ability to interpret the social meaning of the choice of linguistic varieties and to use language with the appropriate social meaning. Within this scope, the goal of curriculum planning and language instruction becomes that of being intentionally focused on appropriate use of the target language in social and cultural contexts.
stages of second language acquisition
the various lin- guistic stages that one encounters when acquiring a language, including preproduction, early pro- duction, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, and advanced fluency. These stages fall in line with Krashen's natural order hypothesis, meaning that language is essentially acquired in a natural order—a predictable sequence of progression.
an ability to apply multiple strategies to keep the communication going and to enhance the effectiveness of the commu- nication. Curriculum planning and instruction emphasize students' use of related vocabulary and language as well as paralinguistic cues, such as body language, to bolster the comprehensibility
additive (or proficient) bilingualism
associated with positive cogni- tive effects that enable the CLD student to attain high levels of proficiency in both L1 and L2.
common underlying proficiency (CUP)
the connec- tions between the bilingual individual's two lan- guages, in which prior knowledge and academic skills in one language are transferable to learning and performance in another.
developmental bilingual education
also referred to as maintenance bilingual education or one-way dual language education; programming typically begins in kindergarten or first grade and offers content-area instruction both in students' first and second language (English) for at least five to six years. Full academic language proficiency in both languages is the goal of developmental bilingual programming.
English as a second language (ESL) programs
lan- guage programs that serve students identified as having limited English proficiency by providing a certified teacher to help with language sup- port, either within the classroom or in a pull-out situation.
Cummins's interdependence, or iceberg hypothesis, reveals the relationship of the first language to the learning of another lan- guage. This hypothesis, represented as a "dual- iceberg," states that every language contains surface features; however, underlying those sur- face manifestations of language are proficiencies that are common across languages.
the inference that ongoing development in the first language so interferes with second language learning that effort should not be wasted on either native language support or ongoing development in the first language.
"less equals more" rationale
the argument that CLD students will learn more English when they are first permitted to participate meaningfully in school activities that are provided in the language with which they are comfortable, the language that already equips them for oral and written communication.
using, or having the ability to use, multiple languages, which is deemed as valuable in many cultures and countries.
separate underlying proficiency (SUP)
a perspective that assumes two languages operate indepen- dently; therefore, no transfer occurs between them.
subtractive (or limited) bilingualism
associated with a student's first language being gradually replaced by the more dominant language. In the case of subtractive bilingualism, students may develop relatively low levels of academic profi- ciency in both languages.
the argument that, although the two languages (L1 and L2) may seem separate on the surface, they are actually quite interdepen- dent at the deeper level of cognitive functions. For example, it is a well-established finding that students who learn to read and write in their first language are able to readily transfer those abili- ties to learning a second language.
transitional bilingual education
programs that pro- vide students with instruction in their native lan- guage for all subject areas, as well as instruction in L2 (English) as a second language. Many of these programs, however, last only two to three years in the United States.
also known as two-way dual language programs; increasingly popularized programs, as a way to attract public support for multilingualism. The two-way model offers inte- grated language and academic instruction for both CLD students and native English speakers for at least five to six years. Among the objec- tives of two-way programming are first and second language proficiency, strong academic performance in the content areas, cross-cultural celebration, and cross-linguistic understandings.
Krashen argues that when language learners have opportunities to interact with native speakers for purposes of authentic communication in inductive language learning environments, they are able to develop functional proficiency in the target language, or truly acquire the language. In contrast, when stu- dents receive deductive instruction, they develop only knowledge about a language (e.g., linguistic
rules), or learn about a language.
the philosophical orientation to instruc- tion that serves as a guide for choosing among methods that are considered to be consistent with the tenets of the theory and scientifically based research that ground the philosophy. Selecting an approach is the first step in developing a plan for accommodative and differentiated instruction.
a developmental perspective on learn- ing that views environmental stimuli as shaping an individual's behavior, such that rewarded behaviors increase in frequency and punished behaviors decrease in frequency.
the mental process of acquiring knowl- edge and understanding through thought, the senses, and lived experiences.
an approach to second language instruction that is the product of efforts to examine and analyze the cognitive psychological side of learning, language learning, and instruction to pro- mote language learning.
communication as the purpose of language
the most common theme found among the methods derived from the communicative approach which emphasize (1) language as embedded in social contexts; (2) the multiplicity of language func- tions; (3) the need for student-centered, teacher- facilitated language instruction; and (4) the need to stress communication versus rules in language teaching.
a more research- and theory-based approach to second language instruction, which derived from international concerns over the ineffectiveness of the grammar- based approaches in developing language learn- ers who could actually use the target language in real-life situations.
a developmental perspective on learning that views the human brain as having certain fundamental structures of understanding that enable it to draw meaning from experience; social constructivists believe that learning occurs as a result of interactions between the environ- ment and the learner's mind.
a teacher-centered approach to second language instruction. The underlying philosophy of the approach assumes that learn- ers acquire language most efficiently by memo- rizing language rules and sentence patterns in a methodical, sequenced curriculum.
language acquisition device (LAD)
a theoretical con- struct proposed by Chomsky to describe an inher- ent mental system specifically devoted to language development and use. The LAD makes possible the idea that people are born with a genetically predetermined capacity to learn language
the awareness and understanding of one's own thought and learning processes.
a body of philosophically grounded and purposively integrated strategies and techniques that constitutes one translation of an approach into professional practice.
according to Krashen, language learners consciously apply the rules of the target language to self-correct or to self-repair during language production. These efforts are needed in the context of authentic communication in order to enhance the comprehensibility of the intended message for the receiver.
a collection of philosophically grounded and functionally related techniques that serves as an implementation component of an instruc- tional method.
a focus on the holistic interests of the students, rather than those who are involved in the educational process, such as teachers and administrators.
specific actions or action sequences that have been designed to achieve a defined, strategic objective.
lessons that are focused on a particu- lar theme or topic that can be taught across all core subject areas.
a system for temporarily holding and manipulating information for a brief period during the performance of an array of cognitive tasks including, but not limited to, comprehen- sion, learning, and reasoning. Working mem- ory is characterized by limited storage capacity and rapid turnover, as differentiated from the larger capacity and archival system of long-term memory.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
a theoreti- cal construct developed by Vygotsky to describe the area between a learner's level of independent performance and the level of performance pos- sible with assistance. Vygotsky argues that learn- ing occurs when new information and skills fall within the zone, or the space between what the learner already knows and what he or she can do with the help of an expert. The ZPD shifts as the individual learns more complex concepts and skills and becomes capable of independently achieving the tasks that once required the assis- tance of another.
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