461 terms

# All Exam Review Guide

Semester 2
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Stock Market Crashes, October 1929
Black Tuesday
What were two signs of weakness?
Basic Industry failing but stock market booming, People borrowing money to play the stock market
What was the unemployment rate in 1933?
25%
What was the Bubble in the Stock Market?
Price/Earnings Index
Rising Equity Prices/Falling Fundamentals
Greater Fool Theory
People rush to get money from banks but they don't have it and they close down
Run on the banks
CCC
Civilian Conservation Corps
WPA
NRA
PWA
TVA
Tennessee Valley Authority
Obtuse
An angle with a measure between 90º and 180º.
Perpendicular
Two lines that intersect to form four congruent angles.
Complementary
Two angles whose measures has a sum of 90°.
Supplementary
Two angles whose measures has a sum of 180º.
Vertical
The angles opposite each other when two lines intersect to form four angles.
Alternate Interior
One of two pairs of angles formed when a transversal intersects two lines.
Parallel
Two lines that do not meet.
Scalene
No sides are congruent on a triangle. (no sides have the same measure)
Isosceles
At least two sides are congruent on a triangle. (two sides have the same measure)
Equilateral
All sides are congruent on a triangle. (all sides have the same measure)
Polygon
A closed figure consisting of segments joined at their endpoints.
Proportion
A statement of equality to two ratios
Percent
A ratio of a number to 100.
The places where the x- and y-axes are divided into in the coordinate plane.
Y-intercept
The Y-coordinate of a point where a graph crosses the Y-axis.
Pythagorean Theory
A2 + B2 = C2
The number that is being added to the coefficient. 3x + 2, 2 is the ________.
Associative Property
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
Commutative Property
a + b = b + a
Zero Property
a + 0 = a
a - 0 = a
a - a = 0
Identity Property
a X 1 = a
a ÷ 1 = a
a ÷ a = 1
Distributive Property
a X (b + x) = (a X b) + (a X c)
Coefficient
The numbers preceding the powers of the variable. 3x + 2, 3 is the ____________.
Combination
An arrangement of a group of things in which order does not matter.
Exponent
A number indicating how many times the base is used as a factor.
Equation
A mathematical sentence with an equals sign to indicate that two expressions name the same number. Ex. 3x + 2 = 14.
Difference
The answer to a subtraction problem.
Linear Equation
A line consisting of all points whose coordinates satisfy the equation.
Permutation
An arrangement of a group of things in a particular order.
Probability
The ratio of the number of outcomes favoring an event to the total number of possible outcomes.
Product
The answer to a multiplication problem.
Sum
Quotient
The answer to a division problem.
Slope
The steepness of a line; that is, of the change in the y-coordinate to the change in the x-coordinate when moving from one point on a line to another point.
Surface Area
The total area of a solid. Lateral area plus area of the bases.
Reciprocal
Two products whose product is one.
Volume
A measure of the space occupied by a solid. Base area X height.
Cross Products Property
If a is to b as c is to d then ad = bc. It allows you to do cross multiplication.
Inverse Property
a + -a = 0
Circumference of a circle
C= πd
or C=2πr
Area of rectangle
A= lw
Area of a triangle
1/2 bh
Area of a Parallelogram
A=bh
Area of a Trapezoid
A=1/2(b1 + b2)h
Area of a circle
A= πr2
Total surface area of a prism
A= lateral area+ surface area
Lateral area of a prism
Perimeter of base * height
Volume of a prism
V= bh
Volume of Cylinder
v=πr2h
Lateral area of a cylinder
2πrh
totalSurface Area of a Cylinder
2πrh +2πr2
What are the 8 taxa? (put a dash between, biggest to smallest)
Domain-Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species
What are the 6 kingdoms?
Protista-Animalia-Plantae-Fungi-Archaeabacteria-Eubacteria
Archabacteria
Prokaryote, (only unicellular), Autotroph or heterotrophs, some have a cell wall, live in extreme environments
Eubacteria
Prokaryote, unicellular, autotrophs or heterotrophs, some have cell wall (peptidoglycogen) Producers, decomposers, parasites
Protista
Eukaryotes, unicellular or multicellular, Producers, consumers, decomposers, some have cell walls, (Plant Like, Animal Like, Fungi Like)
Fungi
Eukaryote, Multicellular and unicellular, heterotrophic, cell walls (chitin) decomposer
Plantae
Eukaryote, Multicellular, Autotrophs, Producers, cell walls (cellulose)
Animalia
Eukaryote, multicellular, heterotrophs, consumers, no cell walls
Are viruses living?
No
Lytic Cycle
Attachment-Injection-Production-Assembly-Release
What makes up a virus?
Genetic material inside a protein coat
Lysogenic Cycle
Attachment-Injection-(Virus stays dormant in cell until specific time)
What are 3 naming groups of bacteria?
Diplo-Strepto-Staphylo
Diplo
2 cells
Strepto
Chains of cells
Staphylo
Clusters of cells
What are the 3 shapes of bacteria
Coccus, Bacillus, Spirillum
Coccus
round shaped
Bacillus
rod shaped
Spirillum
spiral shaped
What are two ways bacteria get food?
Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis
What are the two ways bacteria reproduce?
Binary Fission (1) and Conjugation (2)
What are the protist groups?
Protozoans, Algae, Water Molds
What are the characteristics that all protists share?
Eukaryotes
Moist Environment
Organisms that cannot be classified as Plants, Animals or Fungi
Diverse
Unicellular and Multicellular
Heterotrophs and Autotrophs
Some move to get food
What are the characteristics that all fungi share?
Eukaryotes
Heterotrophs
Use spores to reproduce
The main structure in fungi is the __________
Hyphae
How do fungi get food?
Hyphae go into food source
Digestive Enzymes ooze out from Hyphae
Enzymes break down food into smaller pieces
Absorbed by Hyphae
What are the 3 main groups of fungi?
Club, Sac, Zygote
What are the 2 ways fungi reproduce?
Spores or two hyphae grow together
What is the fungi job in the environment?
Environmental Recycling
What is a habitat?
A place where an organism can live, grow and reproduce
Abiotic Factor
Nonliving parts of an environment
Biotic Factor
Living parts of an environment
Levels of Organization
Organism-Species-Population-Commutity-Ecosystem
Species
A group of organisms that can reproduce together
Population
All members of a species living in a specific area
Community
All the different species that live in a specific area
Ecosystem
All the abiotic and biotic factors in a specific area
Ecology
The study of how organisms interact in an environment
Limiting Factor
A factor that limits population growth in an area
What are the three limiting factors?
Food/Water, Space, Climate
Niche
An organisms role or job in an environment
What is the Predator-Prey Relationship
When prey population is high, predators overkill them and then the prey population decreases, then predators have not as much food so they may die or go hungry, then the prey population sky rockets
Competition
The struggle between two species that need the same resources
What are the three types of symbiosis?
Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism
What is succession?
the regrowing of plants after a natural disaster
What are the three types of consumers?
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
What is the 10% rule?
Only 10% of the suns energy can be passed through organisms
Vegetation, Canopy, Lots of rain, trees, plants, animals, warm all year
Rainforest
Salty Coastal Waters, open waters and deep waters, many zones
Marine
Less then 25 cm of rain, long cold winters, very small trees and plants, cold
Tundra
Prairie, lots of grass, big herbivores (elephants, giraffes)
Grassland
Lakes, Streams, Ponds
Freshwater
300 cm of rain, huge trees, pacific northwest
Temperate Forest
Can be hot or cold, no rain, dry, cactus
Desert
All four seasons, trees lose leaves in winter, animals hibernate
Deciduous Forest
Transition between Salt and Freshwater, marshes/wetlands
Estuary
Northern Dense Forests, Taiga
Boreal Forest
Breathing
Respiratory
Waste
Excretory
Food Circling
Digestive
Heart/Blood
Circulatory
Skin/Nails/Hair
Integumentary
Brain
Nervous
Bones
Skeletal
Muscles
Muscular
Germ Fighting
Immune
Hoard
To save and put away, secretly
Ensue
To follow, to come as a result
Inundate
Cover with water, to load an excessive amount of something
Placate
To stop from being angry, to calm
Recede
To move back or drop to a lower level, to become fainter
Ruthless
Showing no mercy
Avert
To turn away, to keep from happening
Plight
A difficult or dangerous situation
Assert
To say firmly
Bleak
Without much hope, cold and dreary
Blithe
Cheerful, Carefree
Dwindle
To keep on becoming less
Nimble
Quick and Agile
Lethal
Capable of causing death
Ponderous
Heavy or slow moving
Vigilant
Clamber
To climb awkwardly
Tedious
Seeming to go on for a long time, boring
Fathom
A length of six feet
Pique
To arouse or excite
Probe
To poke or prod, to examine closely
Unscathed
Completely unharmed
Rupture
To split or break
Arbitrate
To settle a disagreement between two parties by having a third party decide
Attribute
To think of as coming from or belonging to a particular person or thing. A quality or feature associated with a person or thing
Devout
Very Religious
Enlighten
To inform or instruct
Intervene
To enter in order to settle something
Sacred
Holy, having to do with religion
Capricious
Likely to change quickly without reason
Arduous
Requiring much effort, very difficult
Canny
Shrewd and Careful
Intrepid
Brave, Courageous
Lucrative
Producing wealth or profit
Proficient
Able to do something well
Enthrall
To hold the attention of
Incredulous
Doubtful
Preposterous
To be absurd without reason
Homage
Honor or respect shown publicly
Prowess
Great skill or ability
main character, causes trouble but has a good heart, clever, young boy (9/10), leader, lives with Aunt Polly and Sid in St. Petersburg, mother died, strong willed, witnessed a murder.
Tom Sawyer
Tom's guardian, older, wants to discipline but never really follows through, religious "good book", strict, just wants Tom to love her, favors Sid over Tom, always trying catch Tom making bad decisions, uses physical punishment ("licks" him)
Aunt Polly
Tom's younger half brother, he gets Tom into trouble (tattletale), opposites, selfish, annoying, involved at church, goody-goody
Sid
Aunt Polly's young slave, Tom's friend, obedient, timid of Aunt Polly, young boy
Jim
Tom's cousin who is sweet and kind to Tom. Sticks up for Tom. Helps him with the Bible.
Mary
son of the town drunk, boys envy him, very superstitious, witnesses a murder, becomes Tom's BFF (bosom buddy) - (replacing Joe Harper), town outcast, independent, no one to watch over him, accompanies Tom and Joe to Jackson's Island, adopted by Widow Douglas and becomes rich from the treasure.
Huck Finn
Judge Thatcher's daughter, Adored Unknown, Tom loves her, gets engaged to Tom, engagement is over, ill but gets better, thinks Tom is a "show off." Gets lost in the cave, and Tom saves her life....
Becky Thatcher
Tom's good friend, plays army (General), accompanies Tom and Huck to Jackson's Island, gets homesick
Joe Harper
"half breed" - half Caucasian/half Indian, outcast in the town, violent, murderer, kills Dr. Robinson to seek revenge and frames Muff Potter. Dies in the cave.
Injun Joe
the "other" town drunk (not Huck's dad), friend of Injun Joe, deep down is a good guy but not that bright, "kills" Dr. Robinson. He is freed because of Tom's testimony.
Muff Potter
Tom's former girlfriend (ex fiancé) who is still in love with him. Gets the chicken pox.
Amy Lawrence
a respected town doctor, asked Injun Joe and Muff Potter to dig up a corpse (Hoss Williams) - Dr. Robinson is then murdered by Injun Joe because he wanted revenge on Dr. Robinson's dad.
Dr. Robinson
minister of the church
Mr. Sprague
wealthy widow who is kind to the children in St. Petersburg, Becky and Tom plan to go to her house for ice cream, Huck saves her life by warning the Welshman, becomes the guardian for Huck.
Widow Douglas
A Welshman who lives with his sons near the Widow Douglas's house. This is the man who responds to Huck's warning on the night that Injun Joe plans the attack on Widow Douglas.
Mr. Jones
the new, well-dressed boy in town, he gets caught between Becky and Tom's games. Becky uses him to make Tom jealous. Tom beat ("licked") him in the first chapter; spelling book is ruined by an ink spill.
Alfred Temple
teacher who is strict and always whipping Tom, wig was snatched when Tom played a practical joke on him, wanted to be a doctor and not a teacher, not able to be a doctor because of his shaky hands...
Mr. Dobbins
What does a habitat provide for an organism?
shelter, food and water,
What does the habitat provide?
ability to live, grow and reproduce
Abiotic Factors
Nonliving parts of a habitat (sunlight, soil, water, temperature, oxygen)
Biotic Factors
Living parts of an organisms habitat
Levels of Organization
organism-species-population-communtiy-ecosystem
A group of organisms that can mate and reproduce with each other.
Species
All of the species in a specific area
Population
All of the organisms in a specific area
Community
All of the things in a specific area
Ecosystem
What is Ecology?
the study of how living things interact with each other and their habitat
Birth Rate
Number of births per 1000 people at any time
Death Rate
Number of deaths per 1000 people at any time
Emigration
people leaving an area
Immigration
People coming into an area
What does population density measure?
The number of people in an area
Limiting Factor
A condition that makes it so that the growth of a population can not grow any more
What are three examples of Limiting Factors?
Climate, Space, Food/Water
Behaviors or physical traits that allow an organism to survive in its environment
What is Natural Selection?
Natural Selection is where two organisms that have a good adaptation reproduce to produce more of their kind.
What is a Niche?
An organisms role or job in an environment, can not be shared
How is a Niche determined?
what it eats, who eats it, how it reproduces and physical conditions it requires to survive
What is Competition?
Struggle between two organisms over one thing
How is competition resolved?
1. Feed at different times 2. Feed off different parts of the plant
Predator
Organism that hunts and kills other organisms for food
Prey
The organism that is hunted by the predator
Cheetah's speed, Bat's Echolocation, Jellyfish sting,
Mimicry, False Coloring, Warning Colors, Protective Coverings, Camouflage
What is Symbiosis?
Where two organisms at live together that are different species
Mutualism
Both organisms gain something
Commensalism
One organism gains something while the other doesn't
Parasitism
One organism gains something and the other is harmed
Why do the populations between prey and predator go up and down?
Because at one point the predator is killing all the prey and the prey populations sink and then the predators population sinks then the prey goes up because the predator is down
Example of Mutualism
Ant and Acacia Tree
(Tree's spikes protect Ants)
(Ants attack competition for the tree)
Example of Commensalism
Birds nesting in trees
Example of Parasitism
Ticks and fleas
Primary Succession
Series or changes in an area where no soil or organisms exist
Secondary Succession
Series of changes that occur where the ecosystem has been disturbed but soil and organisms still exist
Pioneer Species
First species to populate an area
What events could lead to secondary succession?
Natural Disasters
__________ in ________ and _________ in __________ shaped politics during the Gilded Age.
Garfield
James ________ was the second US president to be assassinated and he was shot because he supported the spoils system and was shot by a disappointed office seeker.
Arthur Pendleton 1883
Chester A. ___________ proposed the ___________ Act in ____ and it includes most government jobs except elected positions, the judiciary, and the military.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Which 1824 US Supreme Court decision held the the federal government had jurisdiction over inter-state commerce?
Inter-State Commerce Act 1887
Prohibits rebates (spoils system) and Cleveland signed it. Signed in ____.
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
Prohibits attempts to destroy competition signed by Harrison. Signed in ____.
(William) (Boss) Tweed
_____ cheated New York City out of more than \$100 million.
Primary
________ elections said that voters can select their party candidates.
(Ballot) Initiative
__________ said that voters can propose bills to the legislature.
Referendum
_________ said that voters can vote on bills directly.
Recall
______ said that voters can remove elected officials from office.
16 1913
The __th Amendment gave Congress the power to pass an income tax and was passed in ____.
17 1913
The __th Amendment required the direct election of senators and was passed in ____.
Muckrakers
Prohibition
A ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol.
18 1919
The __th Amendment enforced prohibition (bans the sale and consumption of alcohol) and was passed in ____.
19 1920
The __th Amendment gave women the Constitutional right to vote and was passed in ____.
21 1933
The __st Amendment repeals prohibition (legalizes the sale and consumption of alcohol) and was passed in ____.
(Teddy) (Theodore) Roosevelt
Who was the first of the "Progressive" Presidents?
Trustbuster
A person working to destroy monopolies and trusts.
True
True or false? Roosevelt trustbusted the tobacco industry, aka The American Tobacco Company.
(The) Square Deal
Everyone should have the same opportunity to succeed. It gave opportunities for natural resources and for consumers too.
Meat Factory
After reading Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle, TR passed regulations for what industry?
Support
Did Teddy Roosevelt support of criticize conservation?
(William Howard) Taft
Who followed TR in the White House?
Bull Moose (Party)
Roosevelt's Progressive Party.
(Woodrow) Wilson
_________won election in 1912.
Federal Reserve Act
Set up a system of federal banks and gave the government the power to raise or lower interest rates and control the money supply
(Jennette) Rankin 1917
Who was the first woman to serve in the US Congress and in what year was she elected?
Suffragists
People who worked for women's rights to vote.
Temperance Movement
A campaign against alcohol abuse.
(Francis) Willard
The president of the temperance movement.
(Carry) Nation
A woman whose husband was killed because of heavy drinking. She often came into bars with an axe and she smashed beer kegs and liquor bottles.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws enforcing segregation.
(Booker) (T.) (Washington)
An African American educator that wanted to address basic issues and help African Americans and he approached to politicians and businessmen. He wanted to move on to segregation later.
(W.E.B.) Du Bois
An African American scholar that wanted to fight discrimination. He didn't want segregation and helped form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NCAACP) in 1909. Unlike Washington, Du Bois wanted to address the issue of segregation immediately.
Lynching
Being murdered by a mob. More than 1,000 African Americans were had this happen to them.
(George) (Washington) Carver
African American Scientist that discovered hundreds of new used for peanuts and other crops grown in the south.
1910
In what year was there a major increase in immigration from Mexico?
Revolution Famine
There was a major increase in immigration from Mexico because of ___________ and __________.
Anti-Semitism
Prejudice against Jews.
Soft Reconstruction, 10% loyalty oath for soldiers to come back to the union and soldiers were allowed
Lincoln's 10% Plan
Hard Reconstruction, 50% must sign loyalty oath, no confederate soldiers were allowed to run for congress
gave blacks education and protected them from whites
Freedmen's Bureau
When was Lincoln assassinated?
April 14, 1865
Who assassinated Lincoln?
John Wilkes Booth
Who followed Lincoln as president?
Andrew Johnson
What was the 13th amendment?
Ended Slavery, 1865
Believed in hard reconstruction, wanted to make it hard for southern states to come back
What was the 14th amendment?
If your born in the US then your a citizen, passed in 1868
Who was the first African American senator?
Hiram Rhodes Rebels from Mississippi in 1870
Who were scalawags?
White Southerners who weren't for betraying the union
people who came down to the south and sold things for huge prices to poor people and forced them to pay it,
Carpetbaggers
Lincoln's 10% Plan
What plan said that 10% of a state's voters had to sign an oath of loyalty to the Union and then organize a state government and then send representatives and senators to congress. Confederate military leaders couldn't sign but regular soldiers were granted amnesty and could sign?
What bill said that 50% of a state's voters had to sign an oath of loyalty to the Union and then organize a state government and then send representatives and senators to congress. Confederate military leaders and confederate soldiers that voulenteered to join the army couldn't sign but drafted soldiers were granted amnesty and could sign?
Freedmen's Bureau
Bureau that was granted to help freedmen to provide relief like education and teaching them to read and write and defended freedmen. Freedmen were former slaves who had been freed by the 13th Amendment and the Emancipation Proclamation.
1865
Year that Lincoln was assasinated.
Booth
John Wilkes ________ assassinated Lincoln.
Johnson
Who followed Lincoln as president and was republican?
13th 1865
What amendment banned slavery and when was it passed?
_________ __________ were republicans that wanted hard reconstruction.
Stevens
14th 1868
What amendment gives citizenship to anyone who is born in the United States and when was it passed?
Revels
Hiram ________ was the first African American senator in 1870.
Scalawags
______________ were white southerners who opposed secession.
Carpetbaggers
________________ were white northerners who went south to start business or pursue political office.
Grant
________ became president after Johnson in 1868, was a republican and was a former Union general.
15
The __th amendment said that you can't not let someone vote based on their race and was passed in 1869.
Ku Klux Klan
Who were white people who terrorized African Americans and white people who helped African Americans?
True
True or false? Corrupt in administration results in weakening of support for Republicans. Democrats gained more power was a major weakness in Grant's administration.
Hayes 1876
Who became president after Grant and what year were they elected?
Sharecropper
A laborer who works the land for the farmer who owns it, in exchange for a share value of the crop. Borrow money to buy seeds and equipment from landowner. At end of season pay the money back from share of crop sales. If crop sales are poor you're stuck in cycle of debt.
True
True or false? Hayes (Republican) won the election under taking the federal troops out of the south ended reconstruction. (Corrupt party)
Grandfather Clause
What clause said that if your father had voted then you didn't have to do poll taxes and literacy tests to vote?
Poll Taxes
A way to prevent black people from voting in the south by making them pay to vote.
Literacy Test
A way to prevent black people from voting in the south by making them take a hard test that allows someone to vote.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Court case that established segregation is ok. "Separate but equal." Board vs. Brown overturned this and said that segregation is not ok.
Tabacco
South's economy developed and didn't depend on only cotton. ______ farming developed and machine and textile industry developed. This was called the New South.
Confederate
Fort Sumter victor
1861
Fort Sumter year
1861
First Bull Run year
Confederate
First Bull Run victor
McDowell
First Bull Run Union general
Jackson
First Bull Run Confederate general
Johnston
Peninsular Campaign Confederate general
1862
Peninsular Campaign year
Confederate
Peninsular Campaign victor
McClellan
Peninsular Campaign Union general
1862
Antietam (Sharpsburg) year
Union
Antietam (Sharpsburg) victor
26
Antietam (Sharpsburg) had __ thousand casualties total.
McClellan
Antietam (Sharpsburg) Union general
Lee
Antietam (Sharpsburg) Confederate general
1862
Fredericksburg year
Confederate
Fredericksburg victor
Burnside
Fredericksburg Union general
Lee
Fredericksburg Confederate general
Lee
Chancellorsville Confederate general
1863
Chancellorsville year
Confederate
Chancellorsville victor
Hooker
Chancellorsville Union general
1863
Gettysburg year
Union
Gettysburg victor
Lee
Gettysburg Confederate general
Gettysburg Union general
50
Gettysburg had over __ thousand casualties during the three day battle
1863
Vicksburg year
Union
Vicksburg victor
Grant
Vicksburg Union general
Pemberton
Vicksburg Confederate general
Union
March to the Sea victor
Sherman
March to the Sea Union leader
Slocum
March to the Sea Confederate leader
1864 1865
March to the Sea lasted from ____ to ____. (Don't put any commas)
1865
Appomattox year
Union
Civil War victor
Lee
At Appomattox, General _____ surrenders.
260
In the Civil War, ___ thousand Confederate soldiers died.
360
In the Civil War, ___ thousand Union soldiers died.
1787
3/5 Compromise year
1820
Missouri Compromise year
1848
End of the Mexican War (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) year
1850
Compromise of 1850 year
1854
1857
Dred Scott Decision year
1854
Founding of the (new) Republican Party year
1860
Election of Lincoln year
1861
Year when Civil War began
12
At Antietam (Sharpsburg), the Union suffered about __ thousand casualties.
14
Antietam (Sharpsburg), the Confederacy suffered about __ thousand casualties.
The Wilmot Proviso
-the Missouri Compromise did not apply to the new states gained in 1848 so there was a big debate
-fearing the south would have too much power the north wanted the west states to be free
-David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed that congress ban all slavery in the west but this never became a law
-many slavery supports in the south thought of this of an attack on the south
An Antislavery Party
-both the Whigs and the Democrats didn't support slavery
-Each hoped to gain support in both the north and south
-the democratic candidate Senator Lewis Cass proposed letting people in each new territory or state decide for themselves whether to allow slaves
-some of the Whigs and Democrats wanted to make a stronger stand against slavery so they came together forming the Free-Soil Party
Popular Sovereignty
-both the Whigs and the Democrats didn't support slavery
-Each hoped to gain support in both the north and south
-the democratic candidate Senator Lewis Cass proposed letting people in each new territory or state decide for themselves whether to allow slaves
-some of the Whigs and Democrats wanted to make a stronger stand against slavery so they came together forming the Free-Soil Party
A Bitter Debate
-After the discovery of gold in California thousands of people went there and there was enough to make it a state
-that would upset the balance of free and slave states
-the north argued that there was more land on the south and that California should be free
-the south threatened to secede it that happened
-then senator Clay came up with another compromise that he hoped would end the argument
-Calhoun was against the compromise and he was gravely ill and near death and wrote one last speech
-he said that California should not be a free state because that would break up the union
-Webster agreed with Clay
The compromise of 1850
-in September 1850 congress finally passed five bills based on Clay's proposals
- the compromise of 1850 was designed to end the crisis by giving both what the north and south wanted
to please the North California was admitted to the Union as a free state and slavery was banned in the nation's capital
-to please the South popular sovereignty would be used to decide the question of slavery in the rest of the Mexican Cession
-also the southerners got a tough new fugitive slave law
-the fugitive salve act of 1850 allowed special government officials to arrest anyone accused of being a run a-way slave
Outrage in the North
-the Fugitive Slave Act became the most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850
-the northerners were outraged that anyone could be accused of being a slave
-many people were taking for their free lives to being in slavery and many free African Americans fled to Canada
-as the nation drew closer to war congress put out the Kanas-Nebraska act out in 1854
-it was proposed by Stephen Douglas who was eager to expand more
-in 1854 Douglas wanted to have two territories and the southerners didn't like that because they were closed by the slave line
-So Douglas said that popular sovereignty would decide if there would be slaves or not and this went against the Missouri Compromise
Fugitive Slave Act
Anyone that was excused of being a slave could be jailed by the government
The court decides
-Chef justice Robert Taney said that Scott was not a free man and that he didn't have the right to sue and that although they lived in a free state doesn't make him free
-Thus the Missouri compromise was unconstitutional
The Reaction
-this decision meant that slavery was allowed in all states
-the northerners were shocked many hoped that slavery would one day die out if it was restricted in the south
-the southerners were very happy that now they could have slaves in the west
-one man that spoke out against slavery was Abraham Lincoln he said that they should be people
Dred Scott Decision
(Dred Scott v. Stanford)
Dred Scott was an enslaved person who lived with an army doctor in both the Illinois & Wisconsin Territory, where slavery was illegal. Dred Scott sued for his freedom because he lived in an anti-slavery area. Roger B. Taney, chief justice at the time, wrote that Scott was not a free man for 2 reasons: since African Americans weren't citizens, they had no right to sue & enslaved people are not free if they live in a free state because they are property. Plus, Taney said Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in any territory thus the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
Lincoln-Douglas Debate
Lincoln was involved in the Illinois law and legislature. He was later elected to Congress but returned to Illinois. Lincoln opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He had been a long rival of Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
1858-Lincoln ran for the Illinois Senate representing Republicans against Douglas. Lincoln fought against slavery while Douglas was strongly for popular sovereignty. Douglas won but they later ran against each other for presidency.
John Brown Revolt
John Brown hatched a plan to raise an army to free enslaved people in the South.
1859-Brown & others attacked the town of Harpers Ferry, VA to seize guns from the US army stored there and give them to the slaves to start a revolt. Brown was captured by Robert E. Lee's force. He was taken to court and found guilty of murder & treason. Brown said the Bible told him to defend the poor and enslaved. After he was hung, the North mourned and remembered him as a hero while the South thought the North was out to destroy their way of life.
Election Of 1860
-The Republicans chose Abraham Lincoln as there representative because he was popular in the north because he was against slavery
-the Northern Democrats chose Stephen Douglas
-the southern Democrats chose John Breckinridge
-some of the southerners still wanted to heal the split between the north and south so they made the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John Bell
-Douglas tried to protect the Union but in the south at his speeches he got pelted with eggs
Southern States Secede
-Lincoln winning sent shock waves through the south they thought that they had no power in the federal government anymore
-south Carolina was the first state to secede
-and on December 20, 1860 the convention passed a declaration that the Union has now Dissolved
The Confederate States Of America
-with hope of accommodation dissolved more states seceded and any attempt to stop it was not happing
-in February the leaders of the seven seceded states met up in Montgomery Alabama to form a new Nation called The Confederate States
Fort Sumter
this fort was in Charleston South Carolina and the commander refused to give it up
-the Carolina leader decided to let the people in it starve so they cut off food and in late December they could not hold off very long
-lincoln did not want to give up but sending more troops may of caused the other states to secede
-the confederate troops captured the fort when it was Isolated and the US gave up
The Border States
Delaware had few enslaved people and it supported the union
-Kentucky Missori and Maryland favored the south
-Kentucky and Missouri were important to controlling the Ohio and Mississippi rivers
-Kentucky declared itself unetral and the Union generals wanted to occupy it but linclon thought that would maketem secede and when confederate forces invaded it Kentucky stayed with the North
-When Missouri sided with the south the Union supporters set up there own state government and fighting broke out in the state and then Lincoln sent troops and then Missouri stayed with the north
-the north had to invade the south to win so that gave the south the home field advantage
-They also had the three top Generals Albert Johnston Joseph Johnston and Robert E. Lee
The north had a population advantage and more resources to support a bigger army
First Battle Of Bull Run
people from Washington expected an easy Union victory so lots of people came out to watch
-The Union was pushing on in the beginning and the Confederates started to fall back
-then a southern commander yelled that Andrew Jackson was standing up like a stone wall and they stayed and they pushed off the Union and the Union retreated
Harsh Conditions of the War
-camp conditions were often miserable
-lack of clean water was a major health threat of lots a dieses that spread a lot
New Weapon Technology
-new weapons were made in the civil war
-new rifles and cannons were far more accurate than artillery and muskets
Lincoln Changes His Mind
-at first the president resisted he knew most northerners did not want to end slavery
-he fear that if he emancipated enslaved African americans it might make the border states secede
-he changed his mind and relized how big slavery was to the south war effort
-he told his Cabinet that he intended to issue an Emancipation Proclamation
A Famous Proclamation
-in Janurary 1 1863 Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation
-the document had little effect however it freed enslaved people only in areas that were fighting the Union
-the proclamation did not apply to parts of the South already under Union control
-many southerners accused Lincoln of trying to cause a slave revolt
Effects Of the Proclamation
-the proclamation freed few slaves at first it had other important effecrs
-it was now also a fight to end slavery
-also the proclamation dashed any hopes of the south getting help from the British
Volunteering For Service
the Emancipation Proclamation encouraged African americans to fight with the Union
-they served in All black regiments under with white officers and they earned less pay
-they tokk place in many major battles and lots of minor ones
-the most famous battle with the blacks was the attack on Fort Wagner
-the blacks volunteered to go first and got to the fort walls though the fire of confederates
-around half of the soldiers were lost
-many blacks helped as hospital hands and cooks and wagon drivers
Resisting Slavery
in the south the slaves did as much as they could to hurt the confederate army
-they destroyed equipment and gave information to the Union and refused to work in the south
Division in the South
-the war was strongest in Georgia and North Carolinia
-and barely half of Georgia argreed with seceding and nearly 100 peace protests were in north carolinia in 1863 alone
-the support for states rights created other dibisions
-south carolia's governor objected to officers from other states leading South Carolina troops
-the governors of Georgia and South Carolina did not want the Confederate government to force men from their states to do military service
Division in the North
many northerners opposed the Emancipation Proclamation
-others believed that the south had the right to secede
-some northern Democrats blamed Lincoln and the Republicans for forcing the war
-The Democrats that opposed the war were called copperheads
Dealing with Disruptions
-in the south there were many people working against the south
-they would argue men not to join the army and help POWS escape
-to deal with this both president took away habeas corpus
Draft Laws
-A draft law is something that makes people join the army
-many soldiers would go home and lots would not come back and they would leave their unit without permission
-so they made a draft law that required military service
-their were curtain ways for rich people to get out
-if you where in the south and had 30 slaves you could get out
-if you were in the north and if you were to pay the government 300 dollars you could get out
Women in the War
many woman would make themselves look like men to fight in the war
-most women would just become a cook or a doctor
Confederate Victories
-the many victories got up the souths hope to win the war so they went to Ghettysburg
-the new general Meade for the North pursued them
-in all the Unoin lost 23,000 and the south lost 28,000
-in November 1863 15,000 gathered at Gettysburg to honor the people there and Lincoln have the Gettysburg address
March to the sea
-in September 1864 a Union army lead by Sherman went though Atlanta and Burnt it and keep on going
-they took the crops and cattle and pulled up the railroads leaving a path of destruction 60 miles wide
agarrar
to grab
andar
to meander
arreglar
to fix
ayudar
to help
bailar
to dance
bajar
to go down
bucear
to dive
buscar
to look for
cambiar
to change
caminar
to walk
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to sing
cocinar
to cook
comprar
contestar
conversar
to talk
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to cut
desyunar
to have breakfast
descansar
to rest
desear
to desire
dibujar
to draw
enseñar
to teach
escuchar
to listen
esperar
to wait/hope
estudiar
to study
explicar
to explain
ganar
to win/earn
golpear
to hit
hablar
to talk
lavar
to wash
limpiar
to clean
llamar
to call
llegar
to arrive
llevar
to carry/wear
mirar
to watch
to swim
pagar
to pay
aprender
to learn
beber
to drink
comer
to eat
comprender
to understand
correr
to run
creer
to believe
deber
to owe
escoger
to choose
esconder
to hide
leer
prometer
to promise
recoger
to gather
responder
to respond
romper
to break
vender
to sell
pasar
to pass/spend
pasear
to walk
pegar
to hit
pintar
to paint
preguntar
regresar
to return
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to go over
sacar
to take out
terminar
to finish
tocar
to touch/play
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to take
trabajar
to work
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to travel
visitar
to visit
abrir
to open
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to attend
tirar
to throw