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36 terms

Biology; Chapter 6

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What does an egg contribute to the embryo that a sperm does not contribute?
organelles
What is the phenotypic ratio of a monohybrid cross between two heterozygous parents?
3:1
Suppose a gene that codes for flower color is linked with a gene that codes for leaf shape. What do you know?
they are close together on the same chromosome
An allele is dominant in a heterozygote when it is
expressed and the other allele is not
Which of the following phrases best describes the function of meiosis?
reduces chromosome number by half, produces gametes
Which observation of dihybrid crosses led to Mendel's law of independent assortment?
the presence of one trait did not affect the presence of another
Which of the following best describes the genetic material a person receives from his or her father?
22 autosomes and an X or Y chromosome
Which phrase best describes the process of meiosis?
produces haploid gametes
If a pea plant were homozygous recessive for height, how would its alleles be represented?
tt
Hair color and eye color are examples of a person's
phenotype
All of the genetic material that makes up an organism is its
genome
What is the probability that the offspring of a cross between a homozygous recessive parent and a heterozygous parent will be homozygous recessive?
1/2
Which phrase best describes the term "genome"?
the genes that make up an organism
A kidney cell is an example of which type of cell?
somatic cell
In Mendel's monohybrid cross of a purebred white-flowered plant and a purple-flowered plant, the F generation
showed only the dominant trait
The term for a cross that involves just one trait, such as pod shape, is called a
monohybrid cross
Which of the following cell types could have 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome?
sperm
Which of the following is an example of a biological trait?
eye color
Crossing over is an important factor in increasing the
genetic diversity by making new allele combinations
How many chromosomes are in a human gamete?
23
When an organism has two alleles at a particular locus that are different, the organism is called
heterozygous
During what stage of meiosis does crossing over occur?
prophase one of meiosis one
What do the letters inside the grid of a Punnett square represent?
genotypes of offspring
At fertilization, what happens to the sex cells?
their nuclei fuse to form one nucleus
When Mendel crossed plants that were purebred purple-flowered with plants that were purebred white-flowered, the resulting offspring all had this F generation gave rise to white-flowered plants as well as purple. As a result, Mendel determined that individual traits are
inherited as discrete units
Mendel's law of segregation states that organisms inherit two copies of each gene and that
organisms donate copies to offspring in predictable ratios
When is a recessive allele expressed in offspring?
when two copies are present
Which phrase best describes meiosis one?
division of homologous chromosomes
Gametogenesis is the term for
the production of gametes
Which phrase best describes the process of crossing over?
pairs of homologous chromosomes exchange segments
Which of the following observations did Mendel make as a result of his experiments with dihybrid crosses?
different traits are inherited separately
Which of the following statements is true of heterozygous alleles?
they are different forms of the same gene on homologous chromosomes
What happens to sister chromatids in meiosis two?
they are divided
Which of the following cell types is haploid?
sperm cell
The fusion of haploid gametes is called
fertilization
In a genotype for plant height, such as Tt, what does each letter represent?
one allele