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215 terms

MEH Final

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natural law
rules discoverable by reason
Thomas Hobbes
English enlightenment thinker who believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. wrote Leviathan
John Locke
English enlightenment thinker who believed people were basically reasonable and moral; wrote Two Treatises of Government
social contract
an agreement by which the people give up their freedom for an organized society
natural rights
rights that belong to all humans from birth, i.e. life, liberty and property
philosophes
group of enlightenment thinkers in France who believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society
Montesquieu
influential enlightenment thinker who studied governments, wrote The Spirit of Laws, and believed government should be divided into 3 branches with checks and balances
Voltaire
enlightenment thinker who used wit to expose the abuses of his day; targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats
Diderot
enlightenment thinker who produced the Encyclopedia
Rousseau
enlightenment thinker who wrote The Social Contract; governments should be freely elected and impose minimal controls, hated all forms of political and economic oppression
laissez faire
economic policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
Adam Smith
enlightenment thinker who wrote The Wealth of Nations; believed in laissez faire
censorship
restricting access to ideas and information
salons
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
baroque
grand, ornate style of art in the age of Louis XIV
rococo
this art style moved away from religion, and, unlike the heavy splendor of the baroque, was lighter, elegant, and charming
enlightened despots
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Frederick the Great
enlightened despot/king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786; ruled strictly but saw his duty to work for the common good; invited french intellectuals to Prussia, reduced torture, allowed free press, etc.
Catherine the Great
enlightened despot/empress of Russia; abolished torture, established religious tolerance, etc.
Joseph II
enlightened despot/son of Maria Theresa of Austria; made many reforms, most radical enlightened despot
George III
king of Britain during American Revolution; stamp act, sugar act, etc.
Stamp Act
law that imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets in the 13 colonies
George Washington
Virginia planter and soldier who was a participant in the Continental Congress; commanded Continental Army
Thomas Jefferson
principal author fo the Declaration of Independence
popular sovereignty
principle which states that all government power comes from the people; is an important point in the Declaration of Independence
Yorktown, Virginia
after the British surrender in this town, the British war effort crumbled
Treaty of Paris
treaty ending the revolutionary war in America
James Madison and Benjamin Franklin
these two leaders were members of the group who met in 1787 to redraft the articles of the new constitution in America
federal republic
the Constitution of the U.S. created this, which divided power between the federal, or national government, and the states; separation of powers
ancien regime
old order in France; social system that had emerged during the middle ages
estate
social class in France under the ancien regime
bourgeoisie
middle class, top of the third estate; prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors
deficit spending
when a government spends more money than it takes in
Louis XVI
king of France during the revolution; well-meaning but weak and indecisive
Jaques Necker
financial expert that Louis XVI appointed as an advisor; urged the king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform government, and abolish burdensome tariffs on internal trade
Estates-General
legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates in France
cahiers
notebooks; the three estates prepared them, listing their grievances
Tennis Court Oath
third estate swore never to separate and to meet until they established a sound and just constitution
Bastille
grim, medieval fortress used as a prison for political and other prisoners
Great Fear
political crisis of 1789 in France; rumors about attacks in towns and villages, and rumors that government troops were seizing peasant crops triggered the Great Fear; peasants revolted
faction
dissenting groups of people
Marquis de Lafayette
aristocratic hero of two worlds; headed the national guard
National Assembly
met and agreed to give up their old manorial dues, seclusion hunting rights, special legal status, and exemption from taxes. Turned these reforms into law in the coming months
Olympe de Gouges
a journalist during the French Revolution who demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Women. and the Female Citizen; was later executed
Marie Antoinette
austrian-born queen of France; married to Louis XVI
emigres
nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and the revolutionary forces
sans-culotte
working class men and women; pushed the French revolution into more radical action
republic
government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch
Jacobins
political club made of middle class lawyers or intellectuals. Used pamphleteers and sympathetic newspaper editors to advance the republican cause
suffrage
the right to vote
Robespierre
leader of the committee of public safety; selfless dedication to the revolution; "the incorruptible;" general will as law, religion toleration, popular with sans-culottes
Reign of Terror
Robespierre designed this. It was a period in which courts conducted hasty trials; many were arrested and executed with the guillotine
guillotine
beheading thing
Napoleon
a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy; politicians used him to advance their own goals, but he eventually became the ruler of France
nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Marseilles
French city from which troops marched to a rousing new song during the revolution
plebiscite
popular vote by ballot
Napoleonic Code
Napoleon's laws that embodied Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism
annex
to incorporate into
Continental System
a strategy of Napoleon to wage economic warfare that closed European parts to British goods
guerrilla warfare
war strategy of hit-and-run raids
scorched-earth policy
to avoid battles with Napoleon, the Russians retreated eastward, burning crops and villages as they went; known as the ___ ___ ___
abdicate
to step down from power
Congress of Vienna
diplomats and heads of state at down at the ____ in 1814/1815 to restore stability and order in Europe after years of war
legitimacy
restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated
Concert of Europe
result of the Congress of Vienna; powers met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe
anesthetic
a drug that prevents pain during surgery
enclosure
the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
James Watt
improved the steam engine to one that would become a key source of the Industrial Revolution
smelt
to separate iron from its ore
capital
money used to invest in enterprises
enterprise
a business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories
entrepreneur
one who managed and assumed the financial risks of starting new businesses
putting-out system
cottage industry; raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes; skilled artisans in the towns then finished and dyed the cloth
Eli Whitney
inventor of the cotton gin
turnpikes
private roads built by entrepreneurs who charged travelers a fee to use them
Liverpool; Manchester
The world's first major rail line went from ____ to ____.
urbanization
the movement of people to cities
tenement
multistory building divided into apartments
labor union
workers' organizations
Thomas Malthus
British economist who wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population; predicted that the population would outplace the food supply
Jeremy Bentham
British philosopher and economist who advocated utilitarianism; to him, all laws or actions should be judged by their utility
utilitarianism
the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number"
socialism
the people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production
means of production
the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods
Robert Owen
Utopian who set up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland to put his own ideas into practice
Karl Marx
German phiosopher who formulated the theory of "scientific socialism;" wrote The Communist Manifesto; condemned the ideas of Utopians
communism
a form of socialism advocated by Marx, in which an inevitable struggle between social classes would lead to the creation of a classless society where all means of production would be owned by the community
proletariat
working class
social democracy
a political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
ideologies
systems of thought and belief
universal manhood suffrage
principle giving all adult men the right to vote
autonomy
self-rule
Henry Bessemer
Idependently developed a new process for making steel from iron
Alfred Nobel
Swedish chemist who invented dynamite
Michael Faraday
Created the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo
dynamo
A machine that generates electricity
Thomas Edison
American inventor who made the first electric light bulb
interchangeable parts
Identical components that could be used in place of one another in manufacturing; simplified the assembly and repair of products
assembly line
Production method in which workers add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station into the next
Wright brothers
Designed and flew a flimsy airplane Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
Guglielmo Marconi
Invented the radio
corporations
Businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
stock
Shares in companies
cartel
A group of corporations would form this to fix prices, set production quotas, or control markets
germ theory
A theory that certain microbes might cause specific infectious disease
Louis Pasteur
French chemist who showed the link between microbes and disease
Robert Koch
Identified the bacterium that caused tuberculosis
Florence Nightingale
insisted on better hygiene in hospitals and worked to introduce sanitary measures in British hospitals
Joseph Lister
English surgeon who discovered how antiseptics prevent infection
urban renewal
Rebuilding of the poor areas of a city
mutual-aid societies
Workers formed these, which ree self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers
standard of living
Measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society
cult of domesticity
Idealized women and the home
temperance movement
Campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
One of the American women who crusaded against slavery before organizing a movement for women's rights
women's suffrage
Women's right to vote
Sojourner Truth
An African American suffragist
John Dalton
Developed modern atomic theory
Charles Darwin
wrote On the Origin of Species, developed the theory of natural selection
racism
The unscientific belief that one racial group is superior to another
social gospel
a movement that urged christians to social service; they campaigned for reforms in housing, healthcare, and education
Romanticism
refers to an artistic style emphasizing imagination, freedom, and emotion
Lord Byron
Romantic writer who wrote poetry and adventures; romantic heroes came to be described as a word referring to his name
Victor Hugo
writer who recreated France's past novels like The Three Musketeers and The Hunchback of Notre Dame
Ludwig van Beethoven
Romantic composer who combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound; produced nine symphonies, five piano concertos, a violin concerto, an opera, two masses annd many other short pieces
realism
artistic movement that attempted to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment associated with romanticism
Charles Dickens
English novelist who vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers nad factory workers. Oliver Twist and A Tale of Two Cities
Gustavo Courbet
realist painter who said "I cant paint an angel because I have never seen one." he painted The Stone Breakers
Louis Daguerre
improved on photography techniques to produce successful photographs
impressionism
artistic movement in which artists sought to capture the first fleeting impression made by a scene or object on the viewer's eye
Claude Monet
impressionist who brushed colors side by side without blending; painted the cathedral at Rouen dozens of different times from the same angle but at different times of day
Vincent van Gogh
postimpressionist who experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors, giving a dreamlike quality to his subject
Otto Von Bismarck
was a Prussian diplomat, became chancellor under King William I, used blood and iron policy to unite Germany
chancellor
highest official of a monarch
Realpolitik
Realistic politics based on the needs of the state; power was more important than principles
annex
To take control of
kaiser
German emperor
Reich
German empire
Kulturkampf
"battle for civilization." goal was to make catholics put loyalty to the state above allegiance to the church. laws that Bismarck passed that gave the state the right to supervise catholic education and approve the appointment of presets
William II
Succeeded his grandfather as kaiser; extremely confident in sits abilities; asked Bismarck to resign
social welfare
programs to help certain groups of people
Camillo Cavour
prime minister to victor Emanuel II. Similar to Bismarck, believed in realpolitik
Giuseppe Garibaldi
nationalist in southern Italy, ally of Mazzini, wanted to create an Italian republic, created "red shirts" and won control of Sicily
anarchists
people who want to abolish all government
emigration
movement away from one's homeland
Francis Joseph
18 years old when he inherited the Hapsburg throne; Made some limited reforms, granted a new constitution, set up a two house legislature
Ferenc Deak
Moderate Hungarian leader who helped work out a compromise that created a new political power known as the dual monarchy
Dual Monarchy
agreement between Austria-Hungary; They were separate states, each had own constitution and parliament, Francis Joseph ruled both, shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs
colossus
giant; refers to Russia
Alexander II
came to the throne of Russia in 1855 during the Crimean War; emancipated serfs; set up zemstvos
Crimean War
Russia tried to seize the Ottoman lands along the Danube river but Britain and France stopped it
emancipation
freeing of the serfs
zemstvos
local elected assemblies that were responsible for road repair, schools, and agriculture; set up by Alexander II in Russia
pogroms
violent mob attacks on Jewish people
refugees
people who flee their homeland to seek safety elsewhere
Duma
Nicholas II agreed to summon a ____, or elected national legislature.
Peter Stolypin
prime minister under Nicholas II in Russia; made reforms but they were too little, too late
rotten boroughs
rural towns with few or no voters that still sent members to parliament
electorate
the body of people allowed to vote
secret ballot
people could cast their votes without announcing them publicly
Queen Victoria
great symbol of British life from 1837-1901; embodied the values of her age such as duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and respectability
Benjamin Disraeli
leader of the Tories, or conservative party; pushed through the Reform Bill of 1867, giving the vote to many working-class men
William Gladstone
leader of the Whigs, or liberal party; gave the vote to farmworkers and most other men
parliamentary democracy
a form of government in which the executive leaders (usually a prime minister and cabinet) are chosen by and responsible to the legislature (parliament), and are also members of it
free trade
trade between countries without quota, tariffs, or other restrictions
repeal
to cancel
abolition movement
the campaign against slavery and the slave trade
capital offenses
crimes punishable by death
penal colonies
settlements for convicts
absentee landlord
one who owns a large estate but does not live there
home rule
local self-government
Napoleon III
nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte; set up Second Empire
Suez Canal
built in Egypt to link the Mediterranean with the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean
provisional
temporary
premier
french word for prime minister
coalitions
alliances of various parties
Dreyfus affair
a political scandal that caused deep divisions in France between Royalists and liberals and republicans; centered on the 1894 wrongful conviction of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army
libel
the knowing publication of false and damaging statements
Zionism
a movement devoted to rebuilding a Jewish state in Palestine
imperialism
the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
protectorate
an agreement in which local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade or missionary activity; cost less to run than a colony did
sphere of influence
an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges
entente
a nonbinding agreement between countries to follow common policies
militarism
glorification of the military
Alsace and Lorraine
the border province that France lost in the Franco-Prussian war
ultimatum
final set of demands
mobilize
to prepare military forces for war
neutrality
a policy of supporting neither side in a war
stalemate
deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other
zeppelins
large gas-filled balloons used by Germany in WWI
U-boat
nickname from the German word for submarine
convoys
groups of merchant ships protected by warships
Dardanelles
a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean
T. E. Lawrence
a colonel sent to Ottoman Turkey during WWI to support the Arab revolt
total war
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into the war effort
conscription
"the draft" requiring all young men to be ready for military or other service during WWI
contraband
military supplies and raw materials needed to make military supplies
Lusitania
British passenger liner off the coast of Ireland that was torpedoed by Germany during WWI
propaganda
the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause
atrocities
horrible acts committed against innocent people
Fourteen Points
President Wilson's list of terms for resolving WWI and future wars
self-determination
the right of people to choose their own form of government
armistice
an agreement to end fighting
pandemic
the spread of a disease across a large area
reparations
payments for war damage
radicals
people who wanted to make extreme changes
collective security
a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
mandates
territories administered by Western powers after WWI
proletariat
the growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wage earners
soviets
councils of workers and soldiers
Cheka
secret police force much like the tsar's
commissars
Communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty
fascism
any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify the state over the individual and are destructive to basic human rights
Gestapo
Hitler's secret police that rooted out opposition