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natural law

rules discoverable by reason

Thomas Hobbes

English enlightenment thinker who believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. wrote Leviathan

John Locke

English enlightenment thinker who believed people were basically reasonable and moral; wrote Two Treatises of Government

social contract

an agreement by which the people give up their freedom for an organized society

natural rights

rights that belong to all humans from birth, i.e. life, liberty and property


group of enlightenment thinkers in France who believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society


influential enlightenment thinker who studied governments, wrote The Spirit of Laws, and believed government should be divided into 3 branches with checks and balances


enlightenment thinker who used wit to expose the abuses of his day; targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats


enlightenment thinker who produced the Encyclopedia


enlightenment thinker who wrote The Social Contract; governments should be freely elected and impose minimal controls, hated all forms of political and economic oppression

laissez faire

economic policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference

Adam Smith

enlightenment thinker who wrote The Wealth of Nations; believed in laissez faire


restricting access to ideas and information


informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas


grand, ornate style of art in the age of Louis XIV


this art style moved away from religion, and, unlike the heavy splendor of the baroque, was lighter, elegant, and charming

enlightened despots

absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change

Frederick the Great

enlightened despot/king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786; ruled strictly but saw his duty to work for the common good; invited french intellectuals to Prussia, reduced torture, allowed free press, etc.

Catherine the Great

enlightened despot/empress of Russia; abolished torture, established religious tolerance, etc.

Joseph II

enlightened despot/son of Maria Theresa of Austria; made many reforms, most radical enlightened despot

George III

king of Britain during American Revolution; stamp act, sugar act, etc.

Stamp Act

law that imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets in the 13 colonies

George Washington

Virginia planter and soldier who was a participant in the Continental Congress; commanded Continental Army

Thomas Jefferson

principal author fo the Declaration of Independence

popular sovereignty

principle which states that all government power comes from the people; is an important point in the Declaration of Independence

Yorktown, Virginia

after the British surrender in this town, the British war effort crumbled

Treaty of Paris

treaty ending the revolutionary war in America

James Madison and Benjamin Franklin

these two leaders were members of the group who met in 1787 to redraft the articles of the new constitution in America

federal republic

the Constitution of the U.S. created this, which divided power between the federal, or national government, and the states; separation of powers

ancien regime

old order in France; social system that had emerged during the middle ages


social class in France under the ancien regime


middle class, top of the third estate; prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors

deficit spending

when a government spends more money than it takes in

Louis XVI

king of France during the revolution; well-meaning but weak and indecisive

Jaques Necker

financial expert that Louis XVI appointed as an advisor; urged the king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform government, and abolish burdensome tariffs on internal trade


legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates in France


notebooks; the three estates prepared them, listing their grievances

Tennis Court Oath

third estate swore never to separate and to meet until they established a sound and just constitution


grim, medieval fortress used as a prison for political and other prisoners

Great Fear

political crisis of 1789 in France; rumors about attacks in towns and villages, and rumors that government troops were seizing peasant crops triggered the Great Fear; peasants revolted


dissenting groups of people

Marquis de Lafayette

aristocratic hero of two worlds; headed the national guard

National Assembly

met and agreed to give up their old manorial dues, seclusion hunting rights, special legal status, and exemption from taxes. Turned these reforms into law in the coming months

Olympe de Gouges

a journalist during the French Revolution who demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Women. and the Female Citizen; was later executed

Marie Antoinette

austrian-born queen of France; married to Louis XVI


nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and the revolutionary forces


working class men and women; pushed the French revolution into more radical action


government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch


political club made of middle class lawyers or intellectuals. Used pamphleteers and sympathetic newspaper editors to advance the republican cause


the right to vote


leader of the committee of public safety; selfless dedication to the revolution; "the incorruptible;" general will as law, religion toleration, popular with sans-culottes

Reign of Terror

Robespierre designed this. It was a period in which courts conducted hasty trials; many were arrested and executed with the guillotine


beheading thing


a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy; politicians used him to advance their own goals, but he eventually became the ruler of France


a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country


French city from which troops marched to a rousing new song during the revolution


popular vote by ballot

Napoleonic Code

Napoleon's laws that embodied Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism


to incorporate into

Continental System

a strategy of Napoleon to wage economic warfare that closed European parts to British goods

guerrilla warfare

war strategy of hit-and-run raids

scorched-earth policy

to avoid battles with Napoleon, the Russians retreated eastward, burning crops and villages as they went; known as the ___ ___ ___


to step down from power

Congress of Vienna

diplomats and heads of state at down at the ____ in 1814/1815 to restore stability and order in Europe after years of war


restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated

Concert of Europe

result of the Congress of Vienna; powers met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe


a drug that prevents pain during surgery


the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers

James Watt

improved the steam engine to one that would become a key source of the Industrial Revolution


to separate iron from its ore


money used to invest in enterprises


a business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories


one who managed and assumed the financial risks of starting new businesses

putting-out system

cottage industry; raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes; skilled artisans in the towns then finished and dyed the cloth

Eli Whitney

inventor of the cotton gin


private roads built by entrepreneurs who charged travelers a fee to use them

Liverpool; Manchester

The world's first major rail line went from ____ to ____.


the movement of people to cities


multistory building divided into apartments

labor union

workers' organizations

Thomas Malthus

British economist who wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population; predicted that the population would outplace the food supply

Jeremy Bentham

British philosopher and economist who advocated utilitarianism; to him, all laws or actions should be judged by their utility


the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number"


the people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production

means of production

the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods

Robert Owen

Utopian who set up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland to put his own ideas into practice

Karl Marx

German phiosopher who formulated the theory of "scientific socialism;" wrote The Communist Manifesto; condemned the ideas of Utopians


a form of socialism advocated by Marx, in which an inevitable struggle between social classes would lead to the creation of a classless society where all means of production would be owned by the community


working class

social democracy

a political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system


systems of thought and belief

universal manhood suffrage

principle giving all adult men the right to vote



Henry Bessemer

Idependently developed a new process for making steel from iron

Alfred Nobel

Swedish chemist who invented dynamite

Michael Faraday

Created the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo


A machine that generates electricity

Thomas Edison

American inventor who made the first electric light bulb

interchangeable parts

Identical components that could be used in place of one another in manufacturing; simplified the assembly and repair of products

assembly line

Production method in which workers add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station into the next

Wright brothers

Designed and flew a flimsy airplane Kitty Hawk, North Carolina

Guglielmo Marconi

Invented the radio


Businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock


Shares in companies


A group of corporations would form this to fix prices, set production quotas, or control markets

germ theory

A theory that certain microbes might cause specific infectious disease

Louis Pasteur

French chemist who showed the link between microbes and disease

Robert Koch

Identified the bacterium that caused tuberculosis

Florence Nightingale

insisted on better hygiene in hospitals and worked to introduce sanitary measures in British hospitals

Joseph Lister

English surgeon who discovered how antiseptics prevent infection

urban renewal

Rebuilding of the poor areas of a city

mutual-aid societies

Workers formed these, which ree self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers

standard of living

Measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society

cult of domesticity

Idealized women and the home

temperance movement

Campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

One of the American women who crusaded against slavery before organizing a movement for women's rights

women's suffrage

Women's right to vote

Sojourner Truth

An African American suffragist

John Dalton

Developed modern atomic theory

Charles Darwin

wrote On the Origin of Species, developed the theory of natural selection


The unscientific belief that one racial group is superior to another

social gospel

a movement that urged christians to social service; they campaigned for reforms in housing, healthcare, and education


refers to an artistic style emphasizing imagination, freedom, and emotion

Lord Byron

Romantic writer who wrote poetry and adventures; romantic heroes came to be described as a word referring to his name

Victor Hugo

writer who recreated France's past novels like The Three Musketeers and The Hunchback of Notre Dame

Ludwig van Beethoven

Romantic composer who combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound; produced nine symphonies, five piano concertos, a violin concerto, an opera, two masses annd many other short pieces


artistic movement that attempted to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment associated with romanticism

Charles Dickens

English novelist who vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers nad factory workers. Oliver Twist and A Tale of Two Cities

Gustavo Courbet

realist painter who said "I cant paint an angel because I have never seen one." he painted The Stone Breakers

Louis Daguerre

improved on photography techniques to produce successful photographs


artistic movement in which artists sought to capture the first fleeting impression made by a scene or object on the viewer's eye

Claude Monet

impressionist who brushed colors side by side without blending; painted the cathedral at Rouen dozens of different times from the same angle but at different times of day

Vincent van Gogh

postimpressionist who experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors, giving a dreamlike quality to his subject

Otto Von Bismarck

was a Prussian diplomat, became chancellor under King William I, used blood and iron policy to unite Germany


highest official of a monarch


Realistic politics based on the needs of the state; power was more important than principles


To take control of


German emperor


German empire


"battle for civilization." goal was to make catholics put loyalty to the state above allegiance to the church. laws that Bismarck passed that gave the state the right to supervise catholic education and approve the appointment of presets

William II

Succeeded his grandfather as kaiser; extremely confident in sits abilities; asked Bismarck to resign

social welfare

programs to help certain groups of people

Camillo Cavour

prime minister to victor Emanuel II. Similar to Bismarck, believed in realpolitik

Giuseppe Garibaldi

nationalist in southern Italy, ally of Mazzini, wanted to create an Italian republic, created "red shirts" and won control of Sicily


people who want to abolish all government


movement away from one's homeland

Francis Joseph

18 years old when he inherited the Hapsburg throne; Made some limited reforms, granted a new constitution, set up a two house legislature

Ferenc Deak

Moderate Hungarian leader who helped work out a compromise that created a new political power known as the dual monarchy

Dual Monarchy

agreement between Austria-Hungary; They were separate states, each had own constitution and parliament, Francis Joseph ruled both, shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs

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