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369 terms

Stevens History Vocab. Spring Exam

THIS IS EVERY SINGLE VOCAB WORD SHE POSTED-if you have corrections/deeply feel that somehting needs to be added to a word email me
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Paleolithic
also known as the "old stone age"
lasted from 2,500,000 BCE- 10,000 BCE
called the stone age because they used stone tools
people were all nomadic hunter-gatherers
Neolithic
called the "new stone age"
lasted from c. 10,000 BCE- 4,000 BCE
started using tools made of metal
crops and farming introduced
ended when they discover writing, bronze, and cities develop (around 4,000 BCE, considered the start of civilization)
turning point in prehistory when people learned how to raise crops and cattle, then were able to settle down
Çatal Hüyük:
first real village
because of crops, not everyone had to farm so more specialized jobs were created
a collection of mud huts with openings in the roof which is where you got in
Kemet
white(black) land that was flooded/farmed
deshret
the red land (desert)
delta
triangle area where Nile empties into Agean sea
nilometer
used by priests to measure how high Nile flood was
Lower egypt
northern Egypt
upper egypt
south egypt, it is upstream (Nile flows North)
dynasty
group of ruler all from same family
predynastic
before dynasties were established,
inundation
a period where the Nile would flood, leaving soil richer and plants growing well. July through September.
nome
town made up of a few villages in Egypt
nomarch
ruler of a nome
narmer pallete
Narmer smiting someone of front and on back there is a kohl
hieroglyphs
pictures basically used as writing egypt
rosetta stone
stone that has 3 languages on it (Greek, Demoic, Hieroglyph)
cartouche
name wrapped in sacred rope, suppose to prevent name from being used in curses
papyrus
paper in egypt, A material prepared in ancient Egypt from the pithy stem of a water plant,
smiting posture
when you are standing over a person kneeling, both facing same direction
ma'at
"the state of natural and divine order." Makes it possible not to be in chaos, considered to be the status quo in Egypt
pharaoh
ruler of Ancient Egypt
mastaba
rectangle tomb structure, used originally but then pharaohs used pyramids,
Memphis
first capital of Egypt, used throughout Old Kingdom
vizier
chief administrator of the two lands, appointed by a Pharaoh. IN new kingdom was chosen for military prowess.
two lands
the red and white land, Narmer united
double crown
the red and white crown jammed together, created by Narmer
middle kingdom
the second of the 3 kingdoms in egypt, Dynasties 11-14, fell to Hyksos
Nubia
area south of Egypt
cataracts
river rapids that are hard to pass with boats which create trading difficulties.
budget burials
came in middle kingdom with democratization of afterlife, put spells on coffin instead of walls of mastaba
coffin text
text put on coffin in Egypt, used in budget burial where text was not of mastaba
composite bow
bow developed in new kingdom, allowed for much farther/faster arrow shooting, technology stolen from Hyksos
aspective view
drawings done from best aspect of something, birdeye view of lake but still shows fish sideways
succession
when one person (usually a son) is planned to be the next ruler
karnak temple
temple near thebes, cult temple which means it is on east of nile
coregent
the son of the ruler who acted as coruler.
instruction
a piece of advice given created by Amenemhat (he said to his son after he was assassinated telling him to beware of other people, written as if he had already died, written by people after him who knew what he would have said)
Scribes
professional people to read and write,in Egypt almost exclusively priests
Hyksos
people who came in Egypt as mercenaries but then took over, caused 2nd intermediate period
war chariot
Egyptian ____ is swift and light but hittite______ is able to crash into enemy life
imperialism
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
2nd intermediate period
period when Hyksos had control of lower Egypt, Ahmose ended it
Amun-RA
new god developed in New kingdom, (not by Akhenaten), seen as the high god
mitanni
A land that Egypt had some issues with, Akhenaton married a ______ princess to solidify peace (her name is Nerfertitti)
battle of megiddo
fought by Thutmose, after he wins he takes the mitanni princes and raises them in Egypt and then sends them back as puppets for him
bureaucracy
when important decisions are made by offcial, not elected representatives
Aten
new god Akhenaten made, monotheistic religion's god, seen as sun disc god
negative confession
ritual in which you would say a series of statements, each promising a sin hadn't been comitted. (example: I did not kill anybody)
Akhetaten
new capital of egypt under Akhenaten, with own style of art and temples, parallel to Contantinople
cult temple
temples on east of Nile used for priests
memorial temple
on west of Nile, used to take offerings, body is not there to prevent tomb robbing
ba
essence of a person's personality, depicted as human headed bird, returns to tomb at night after day of flying
ka
life force of a person or god, requires offerings
akh
ghost capable of interacting with living
Temple of Luxor
cult temple, near karnak
valley of kings
hidden tombs behind mountains where bodies were to prevent tomb raiding, in Egypt
hittites
people in the coast to northeast of traditional egypt, Egypt fights them
battle of kadesh
battle lead by Ramses II for Egypt, ends up a draw with Hittites but Ramses says he won and makes a picture of him with like 40 arms shooting arrows to win
treaty of kadesh
treaty made by Ramses ending war with Hitties
abu simbel
where Ramses II built a memorial to himself
Sea people
the Philistines, they force Egypt to contract but Rames III defeats them once
Yangshao culture
settled agricultural society
example: Banpo village
houses and graves were grouped in ways thought to reflect extended families
differences in wealth even within family
Secondary burial:
Not warlike:
used the "snake" method for pottery
pottery is red because of clay available
had proto-writing on pottery, thought to identify who's work it is
lived near Yellow River
Banpo
one of the yangshao cities
longshan culture
lived near yellow river
overlap with Yangshao, though they start later
farther north and east
thick defensive walls
warlike;
settled agricultural society
used potter's wheel
pottery is black because of clay available
used cracked bones
Xia dynasty
mythical kingdom, could be real, but we don't know
oracle bones that proved the Shang dynasty real might also prove the Xia real
responsible for silk, fire, farming, etc.
no archeological evidence to prove their existence
Stories:
Thought to be dated from 2205-1766 BCE
Founded by Emperor Yu- organized flood control and irrigation projects
Last Emperor was Jie- "evil"
One emperor said to have made fire
shang
round the same time as Egypt's New Kingdom (1500-1046 BCE)
Capitol is near modern Anyang, north of the Yellow River
Earliest form of Chinese writing
Had walled cities and silk
Bronze working
Thought to be legendary, until discovery of oracle bones and bronze artifacts(Han historians had provided a list of the ______ kings, but nobody believed them due to no actual evidence)
allied chieftains
Certain lands outside Shang heartland were ruled by tribal chieftans without blood ties to the Shang
The Shang influenced their descisions through intimidation and gift-giving
These areas were not directly under Shang control; Chieftans could say no
Loyalties of the tribes often shifted; enemies were denoted with the suffix -fang
estate holders
gained the majority of the land's income in return for giving taxes and soldiers to the king
ere members of the royal family, who governed the estates for the king
In China
cowry shells
Shang currency
imitations of _____ were also used
oracle bones
"dragon bones"; answered questions to the gods after being interpreted by the priests
clan
A group of people who claim descent from a common ancestor; as small as an extended family or as large as a tribe in china
chinese characters
in china, each symbol stands for one word
zi clan
the Shang king always belonged to the _____
- includes extended family members
zhou dynasty
government Structured similarly to Shang in that it had a king and estate holders under him
viewed as a perfect time by the later Confucians
small expansions took the borders to the eastern sea
centralized
concentrated (control of an activity or organization) under a single authority
decentralized
transfer (authority) from central to local government
Tian
shang heaven, the dwelling place of the gods and ancestors
mandate of heaven
justified rule; made king "Son of Heaven"; said the leader was approved by the gods; could be lost or gained, in china
son of heaven
title of the king if he had the Mandate; claims that king doesn't only rule on earth, but as a connection from the gods to the people, china
dynastic cycle
the pattern of a bad dynasty followed by a good one; the losing and gaining of the Mandate
hierarchy
a system of ranking people or things
well -field system
Each family was given an outer private square, which they farmed themselves. The lord owned the middle square, but the people living in the surrounding squares farmed his square. The lord could own several plots of land like this, so they could have several inner squares. made in western Zhou
collar harness
made it easier to use animals to pull plows and heavy loads in warring states
fallow fields
improved crop quality, only farm 1/2 of land each year so part of it gets super fertile for next year
Eastern Zhou period
split into warring states and Spring and Autumn
spring and autumn
decentralization, the states were competing against each other
estate holders=hereditary
lords seize land from kings
Confucius lived during this period
Zhou was only a religous leader (no military or poltiical power for him)
signal lights
tell lords to rush to defend the king
Bao Si thought it was funny watching everybody freak out
king you was last western zhou king because he lit _____ but nobody came since he always faked attack and lit them for Bao Si
hegemon
an overlord chosen to lead during crisis, military leader who centralized leadership, in China
concubine
a mistress; often a man would have many; sons could not inherit title, in China
piece mold method
Make a clay version of the final product
Cover the clay version with more clay
Carefully cut away the outer clay in sections
Reassemble the mold & add molten bronze
Remove reusable mold
Used in Shang
lost wax method
-Fashion the core
-Cover with wax in shape of final product
-Cover with clay
-Pour in molten bronze and the wax would rise and be "lost" out of the top
-Break off outer mold and remove
used in Spring and Autumn
silkworms
larvae of a moth, used to make silk
lacquer
plastic in china, light, hard and water resistant
ren
humanity; people who are "forceful, resolute, simple and cautious of speech, confucius virtue
jungzi
gentlemen; young nobles who live honorably, can perform rites and cultivate ren
the dao
the Way; impossible to define; a force or plan for the universe; never acts for a purpose
daodejing
written by Laozi; "Classic Text of the Way and Virtue"; 81 chapters; proverbs
nonaction
do nothing and yet everything will be done"; never a purpose; natural
yin
the weaker element; women; praised
yang
the stronger element; men
Art of War
book written by Sun Wu on war tactics
legalism
thought Confucianism was naive

emphasized strict enforcement of laws
laws should be applied equally to ALL without favoritism (except to king)
innovated by Shi Huangdi, use during Qin dynasty
Great Wall
wall built along China;s northern border, msotly other walls connected, connected by Shi Huang Di
terracotta warriors
built in tomb for Shi huang Di to give power in after life, took 36 years to build,
civil service exam
based on Confucian principles
tested knowledge of Chinese history, philosophy, literature, manners, and language
only 1 of every 3000 passed the _______
those with the top scores received powerful posts in government and financial rewards that enabled them to purchase large amounts of land
those with the lower scores worked in local government overseeing law courts, the census (kept records of how many people there were and how wealthy they are), schools, taxes, etc.
all men could take the exam
people who were poorer had a disadvantage because they could not read or write so there was no way that they could pass
people sought education in order to pass _____
bureaucracy
a large number of officials, usually in a strict rank order; each official has a specific job; Chinese had biggest and longest lasting
civil servants
Bureaucrats- varied dramatically in status based on their rank and responsibilities, in China
silk road
long road, allowed buddhism to enter china due to trade of silk, more trade on this during han dynasty
seed drill
new farm tool in China used to sow and plant seeds at the correct depth
seismograph
China, could record Earth's tremors; pole inside an urn, triggers released balls that fell in direction of tremor
acupuncture
treatments to heal illness and relieve pain; thin needles inserted into skin @ certain point, in China
wheel barrow
China innovated used to transport goods
paper
used as armor, kites, and art in China,
buddhism
originated in India, but entered China during the 1st century CE because of trade along the Silk Road
______ taught that suffering could be avoided by pursuing the Middle Way and avoiding attachments
red eyebrows
overthew liu bang, put cinnabus (red metal) on forehead
fars
Persian heartland where the 'Persians' are from- this region never has to pay taxes
assyria
ruled by fear and intimidation
-took hostages to homeland
-punished resistance severely, often making "examples"
-Conquests:
Phoenician homeland (not colonies)
Judah (pays Assyria to not invade, but were still tributary states)
Israel (stopped paying to avoid invasion, but were conquered)
ashur was main god
capital was nineveh
to sack
to pillage or loot after capture
sappers
(dig underneath wall and weaken it-, innovated by Assyria, used in sieging
battering ram
used to break down wall when sieging, innovated by assyria
tribute
money payed from Satrapies to ruler
sparabara
Assyrian archer pair, eventually more people are put behind the shield in front to shoot arrows
siege tactics (in Assyria)
siege tower
battering rams
sappers
all _______ used in Assyria
Medes
descended from nomads who settled in the region
-Military: horse archers, spearmen with wicker shields
-Cyaxares II and Astyages were rulers
Ecbatana
capital of the Medes
Nineveh
capital of the Assyrians
cuneiform
the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems such as persia
hanging gardens of Babylon
gardens in Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar built them for his wife from Media, irrigated
foliage would spill over sides of terraces
"hanging plants"
built of mud-brick
Lydia
culture that was near Ionian city states, Croesus lead them, knew about eclipses and had some greek customs
myriad
a unit of 10,000 men used in Persian military
the immortals
10,000 best troops in all of Persia, whenver 1 died he was immediately replaced by the 10,001st best soldier
satrapy
Persian province, parallel to nome/allied chieftain area
satrap
ruler of satrapy, parallel to nomarch,

_____ can tweak things to make governing in his reign better
no universal law codes
each ______ made their own laws
universal taxing system
all s______ spoke Persian but there could be multiple languages in each satrapy
top military and financial officials report to the Great King rather than the _____
Network of spies
Darius reforms takeaway their power
Ionian city states
tried to rebel against Darius like scythians did but failed, greek city states but on coast of Persian/Lydia land
darics
gold coins introduced by Darius
polygamy
when a man has many wives
Susa
one of persia's capitals, royal road went from ______ to Sardis,
royal road
pathed road going from Sardis to Susa, built by Darius
Persepolis
one of Peria's capitals, founded by Darius, had an awesome palace
paradaisia
walled rectangular ornamental gardens , Cyrus started tradition of building them
apadana
square audience hall, part of Palace at persepolis

the eastern stairs represented the people of the empire
the northern stairs were not as good quality
largest and prettiest building of Persepolis
72 columns that were 25 meters tall
canats
fresh water was brought in through these in persian palaces,

water moves by gravity so they would lower them where needed (goes down in a slight slope in order to move the water)
similar to Roman aqueducts
great king
ruler of persia, parallel to emperor/pharaoh/hegemon
ahurmazda
is the good in the cosmic battle between the forces of good and evil, part of Zoroastarianism
avesta
was like the bible, compilation of preaching of Zoroaster
magi
priests in persia who introduced into the faith rituals of dreams, magic, and astrology;
hellenes
what Ancient Greeks called themselves
hellas
what Ancient Greeks called Greece
Aegean Sea
sea that surounds greece
peloponnesus
name of souther part of greece
acropolis
-highest part of a city in greece, where best and most important building were
minoans
one of the first early civilizations in Greece, started before Mycaneans started and ended before Mycanenans ended, had no city walls-they relied on Navy to bully other islands, also they have myth about _______ princess who got intimate with a bull and then a man from Athens kills the 1/2 bull 1/2 man thing but the man forgets to put up white sail on way home which signifies he is alive so dad thinks his son died and procedes to commit suicide
Knossos
first city for Minoans, it was on Crete
frescoes
painting on wet plaster, preserved well
Thera eruption
volcanic eruption, hurt the Minoans
linear A
Minoan writing, we can not read this
linear B
Mycanean writing, we can read this but it is mostly list of inventory so it is not useful
Mycenaeans
-Started later than the Minoans, but also outlasted the Minoans
-Located on the southern portion of the mainland of Greece
- supposed to be the Greeks in the Trojan War
-ended up occupying Crete after the Minoans
Mycenae
name of southernmainland home to mycenaens
heinrich schliemann
Discovered "Agamemnon's" mask
bard
a ministrel, a singing story teller,
geometric style
a new style of pottery featuring abstract geometric designs, Archaic Period, different colors and complicated patterns
aristocracy
few wealthy nobles ruling over a polis(or larger group of people)
tyranny
when one person rules, complete power, it replaced oligarchy in greece after commercial revolution
lyric poetry
-accompanied by a lyre these poems express the poet's thoughts and feelings speaking directly to the audience rather than protaying a character, short like today peomes
hoplites
heavily armed greek warriors, replaced artistocratic cavalry when ironworking came
phalanx
-8 by 8 compact square of hoplites where each man used his shield in left hand to protect man on his left, most experienced people are in the back and on far right side of the soldiers,
battle of marathon
battle where Darius and the Perisan landed at Marathon, Athens met them there with the never before seen by Persian army phalanx formation and destroyed the Persian army, some Persians were ditched becaused boats left ASAP
hellespont
where Xerxes built his pontoon bridge, right next to Ionian city states
pontoon bridge
boat bridge)- where boats are lashed together, sides are covered so horses do not get scared about walking on water,
battle of thermopylae
where Xerxes defeated the greeks, Spartans dismissed rest of greece and fought to the death, bought time for greece
battle of Salamis
naval battle where greek ships lured persian ships behind island salamis and Artemisia (persian women) was the only persian ship to get away, she rammed her own ships to trick the greeks
battle of plataea
when all greek city states united to defeat what Xerxes left behind to conquer Greece
delian league
-league where all of greek city states besides Sparta came together to and made treasury at Delos
polis
city states" in Greek
commercial revolution
when trade was revived in Greece sparked by Phoenicians bringing the alphabet, created business class of winner who had successful ventures trading overseas and loseers who became debt slaves,
magna graecia
greater Greece," what southern Italy and Sicily were called,strongly influenced early Roman culture,
kouros
naked male archaic statues
ostracism
to be exiled by have the largest amount of names written on the pottery, practiced in Athens
ostraka
the broken pottery where the names of the people who were wanted to be ostracized were written on
Laconia
another name for Sparta
code of lycurgus
Spartan "bible," like their king, taught the people all of the institutions that are unique to Sparta
periokoi
"neighbors," people inferior to Spartans, above helots, not slaves, not citizens
helots
people who were felt to be a threat, conquered peoples, made slaves, produced all food for Spartan military
messenia
the land adjacent to Lakonia, where most of the helots live, revolted at one point and almost won
spartiates
what the genuine Spartans were called, didn't intermarry or share their privileges with the rest of the population
lycurgus
man/god who is credited with all changes in Sparta as well as all institutions, not known if he was real
krypteia
the test for young Spartan boys, had to live alone in a "period of hiding" in the countryside killing dangerous helots, have to be at least 13,
ephors
overseers, 5 magistrates elected annually in the Spartan government, more powerful than kings because they can discipline them if needed, declared war,
gerousia
the counsel, 28 men + 2 kings over 60 years old, elected for life, sparta
apella
assembly of all male Spartiate citizens
oracle at delphi
prophet who told Croseus "great empire will fall" before he attacked Cyrus, also told Athens "Walls of wood will protect you" before they beat Persia with their wooden ships at Salamis
olympic games
the games that were held to show off the strength and power of the men as they competed for olive branch crowns and medals
delian league
league started by Athens that eventually comes to clash with the Peloponnesian league
hetairai
highly educated Greek women that had relationships with men that were unpaid, different then prostitutes because they were not just for sexual relations, they were smart and often were taken around with the men
demes
voting neighborhood in Athens, Cleisthenes made
peloponessian league
league formed by Sparta with the surrounding area to fight against Athens' tyranny
long walls
walls from Athen to their port (piraeus) so that Athens could use their superior Navy to get supplies safely
Piraeus
port city of athens
sicilian expedition
-when Athens decided it would be a good idea in the middle of a war to go and try to conquer Sicily but this failed and helped lead to their impending doom in the war
direct democracy
a form of government in which the people themselves actually make all of the decisions like the government in Athens where the people ran the whole thing
ekklesia
all men that are of age, votes on rulers and passing laws or not, in athens
demagogues
excellent speaker who tried to sway the ekklesia
boule
council of 500 selected by allotment, prepared agenda for ekklesia, met every non holiday, athens
prytany
the standing commitee, 50 counselors from the same tribe from the boule, served 1/10 of the year, lived in the tholos, all state business came to them, athens
chairman
head member of the prytany, changed everyday, was the head of all meetings that took place that day, very little power
stratego
10 military leaders, elected, 1 year, can be reelected as many times as wanted
metoikoi
resident foreigners of Athens, paid taxes that helped pay people in the government
liturgy
donation paid for by rich Greeks to gain themselves prestige while also contributing to the government as a sort of super tax, used for public entertainment/service
drachma
Athenian silver coin
parthenon
a large Greek temple in Athens dedicated to Athena
pediment
shallow rectangular space above the end columns of a temple where the gently sloped roof meets the columns
naos
A rectangular room inside of a temple that housed the statue of the god for whom the temple was built. This windowless room opened up onto a porch with columns
capital (of a column)
the top and (usually) most detailed part of a column that is used to distinguish between the different types of columns
doric column
greek column that was plain
ionic column
greek Columns with ram's horns patterns
corinthian column
greek Column with carvings of acanthus leaves as if they were growing out of the capital
amphora
A type of storage jar with a long neck and two handles attached to either side of the jar
krater
A mixing bowl for water and wine that looks like a plant vase with two small handles on either side of the bowl.
kylix
a drinking bowl
city Dionysia
city for the festival for Greek Theater, lasted approx. 1 month, playwrights submitted 3 tragedies, 1 satyr
theatron
Seating area for spectators in a theater in greece/rome
chorus
Formation of singing narrators in Greek and Roman theater
orchestra
circular "dancing space" in greek theatres (the stage)
skene
the backdrop, allowed for a backstage (dressing rooms/storage), first made of wood, changes to stone
paradaos
Entrances to the orchestra used by the actors and other performers
machina
Mechanical arm used to depict activities in the sky, such as heroes riding flying horses, or gods descending from Olympus.
deus ex machina
God out of a Machine. Convention in which a God would come down from a Machina and solve all the problems of the play that the play write could apparently think of no logical means of solving.
ekkyklema
moveable rolling set piece, rolled out to display a dramatic tableau, usually the aftermath of a murder, seen as if murder scene was paused
choregos
title of the wealthy citizen who trained/paid the chorus
symposium
A drinking party of Greek men
agora
most important part of a city polis, the town center, housed gvnt buildings
gymnasia
parks in forrests, considered the gym in greece men excercised naked here
trireme
boat with three rows (levels) for oars, used by the Greek navy
sophists
speakers hired to advocate opinions vote on by Ekklesia,
socratic method
Method of teaching in which the "teacher" would pose a question, then contradict every given answer, forcing the student to think further. (Chair Method.) "A dialogue of questions and answers in which a student puts forward their beliefs and the teacher questions the logic of their assumptions without offering a solution.
platos republic
Plato's book outlining his ideal state. The social classes were based on intellect rather than wealth or birth, with professions assigned based on ability or merit, with communal marriage and child-birth (to ensure that each child received the same, high-quality care and education.) Philosopher king (Or Queen, wisest, based only on intellectual merit) ->Intellectual Aristocracy (Generally smart, advised the king/queen, not a random democracy, entrust the gov't to only the wise. -> Warriors (Slight intelligence but mostly brawn). ->Farmers and Artisans (Physical work only).
platos academy
Plato's school at which he taught his beliefs. He taught co-ed classes, and many recorded teachings exist in written dialogue form.
thirty tyrants
small oligarchy installed in Athens by the patrons after the Peloponnesian War
Phillipics
when Demosthenes said Phillip was coming and said Greece needed to unite to survive
league of corinth
-League of Greek city states where Phillip is hegemon
march of ten thousand
when ________ greeks _________ out of persian heartland, lead by Xenophon
the kings peace
also known as Peace of Antalcidas; peace treaty with Greece; Persia will stay in their land if Greece stays in theirs
battle of Issos
1st of the 2 battles where Alexander beat Persian to conquer it, he won when Darius personally withdrew when the battle was about even
alexandria
city in Egypt built by Alexander
pharos
lighthouse at Alexandria
museum
a building in which objects of historical, scientific, artistic, or cultural interest are stored and exhibited.
battle of gaugamela
second battle where Alexander conquered Persia, Darius III tried running away after but satrapies caught/killed him
the companions
elite hellenistic cavalry, lead by Alexander the Great
marriage of Susa
when 10,000 of Alexander's men got married on the way home in Susa, Alexander married Darius' daughter
hellenistic
Greek + more = ________
ptolemaic kingdom
Kingdom in Egypt after Alexander dies, ruled by Ptolemy
seleucid kingdom
kingdom in what was Persia after Alexander dies, ruled by Epiphanes (Antinochus IV)
antigonid kingdom
kingdom in where greek city states were after Alexander dies,
koine
the common language of the Greeks from the close of the classical period to the Byzantine era
library at alexandria
built by Ptolemy (II?), huge compiliation of books from all over the world
archimedes screw
water pump used my twisting, invented by archimedes
stoicism
asks for being virtuous and having divine spark, type of thinking in hellenistic/greece
Ostia
port of Rome
tiber river
the river running through Rome that was used for sewage
the latins
lived in Central Italy, ruled by Kings, some of whom were Etruscans, lived in Latium and they were viewed as backwards, small, and uncivilized to all the other civilizations (Etruscans, Greek colonies, etc.)
etruscans
an advanced culture to the north of the Latins who ruled over Rome in early history. They had cities, writing, games at funerals, and togas. They were much more emotionally attached to their spouses and had special double coffins for husbands and wives. Rome got some of their mythological names from them and 3 of Rome's 7 kings were ________
fasces
a weapon that consists of an ax in the middle of a bundle of sticks, carried by Lictors. A symbol of "imperium"- the right to rule, punish and execute, the rods= punishment, ax= execute., used in Rome
augury
the study of birds and the entrails of animals, performed by special officials who looked at them as signs and omens
auspices
the study of birds as omens and divination
Gauls
Celtic tribes that were the enemies of Rome for many centuries, defeated by Caesar
Alps
a large mountain range stretches across Europe, Hannibal crossed in 2nd punic war
mos maiorum
the way of our ancestors," Romans appealed to tradition with the absence of a written constitution
paterfamilias
head of the family," the father or grandfather who held the power to execute or kick out any member of the family
clan
large extended family, had a head leader
patrons
usually wealthy Roman citizens, who took people in who needed legal help, food, a family to belong to, or money, and in exchange they asked their clients to vote for them (or generally influenced their political views)
clients
helped their Patrons get elected, indebted to their Patrons in some manner, and had to pay them back some way. Some of them walked their Patrons to the Forum every morning
patricians
descended from the original Senators who overthrew Tarquin and set up the Republic, upper class, generally aristocratic landowners, had religious and political priveledges, originally were the only ones who could be consuls and senators, and couldn't intermarry with plebs orginally, 100-200 clans, ______ vote counted for more than the pleb's vote
plebians
small farmers, merchants, artisans, some landowners, Roman citizens with fewer rights, used times of crisis to their advantage to strike and gradually win rights from the Patricians, not allowed to intermarry with patricians originally
tribunes
originally 2, then 10, not controlled by the consuls, 1 year, unpaid term, they represented the wishes of the plebeian people and had the power of veto. They eventually gained the power to make and pass plebecites, and the Lex Hortensia made them equal
veto
power to overrule anything proposed to the senate or people's court, held by the Tribunes, means "I forbid it"
conscription
military draft in Rome
pilum
special type of javelin used by the roman military, broke on impact once thrown
the twelve (stone) tables
the plebeians had the laws written down on ______, so they could be read clearly and so they wouldn't be cheated by patricians trying to bend the rules
lex hoertensia
the law stating that plebeians and patricians are legally equal except the Senate still controlled all of the money and elected positions
plebiscites
laws created by the plebeian assembly
proscription
killing off all political enemies, writing names and bounties on public list, used by Sulla
mosaic
roman art made of small colored tiles put together to create an image
atrium
the large entryway in the roman house
tabernae
small shops in the front of houses, street level, in Rome
triclinium
roman dining room
peristyle
roman garden
pompeii
a small town caught in time by Mt. Vesuvius, erupted in 79 CE, preserved Roman daily life
domus
rich (roman) town houses
villa
country estates of the wealthy
insulae
apartment buildings, fire-prone, very tall, shoddy construction, in Rome
hypocausts
heating system used in roman houses/in thermaes, heated under the floor
thermae
hot bathes, in Rome
the forum
roman marketplace, almost all emperors contributed to ______ of Rome
circus maximus
where Rome's chariot races occurred, teams of chariots often with four horses a piece completed 7 laps at high speed around the spina in the center, crashes were very common due to the severity of the turns
aqueduct
used arches to cross valleys while maintaining a slow but steady angle of decline to carry water to a city, Rome had 9,
carthage
Rome's enemy in the Punic wars during the 200s BCE, on northern tip of Africa/ has colonies temporarily on Spain
battle of Canae
Battle where every single member of Roman army died at the hands of Hannibal, second punic war, fought in Italy
battle of Zama
where Scipio attacked Carthage Capital, Hannibal lost, ended Second Punic war
consul
position in roman republic, 2 in total, elected, most likely to lead army, had authority over all beside tribunes, has imperium
censor
1 of them, elected once every 5 years, suppose to serve 1.5 years, takes census, can remove senator and appoint senator at his discretion, in Rome
praetor
Roman judges, could punish/kill (has imperium)
aedile
overseers of public projects in Rome
dictator
military ruler, suppose to step down after 6 month/ when problem was solved (whichever came sooner), had sole military power during time of crisis, in Rome
roman senate
body composed of 300, then sulla expanded to 400, the Caesar expanded to 500, set foreign policy, fund military, debate and pass resolutions
triumvirate
First one has Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, second is Marc Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian, used as a triple threat political power
battle of actium
when Antony was defeated by OCtavian in a naval battle
princeps
title of Augustus meaning "first citizen", this bolstered his image as a simple man
triumph
victorious general and his senate parade through Rome granted by senate, parade with captive
imperator
title Augustus held, means supreme commander, voted o by troops/senate and when one gets it they have a triump, Vespasian makes it mean emperor
principate
1st half of roman empire, when empire pretends to honor republic
dominate
second half of roman empire, when empire was declining
province
territory outside of Roman heartland but controlled by Rome, until diocletian they govern themselves
provincial governor
in charge of a province, had power and responsibility of the area
tax collectors
publicani, employees of the finance companies who collected taxes, sometimes corrupt
denarius
expensive Roman coin
orations
long speeches spoken by demogouges in court, copied by Rome from greece
novus homo
means 'newbie", title given to Marius since he was first politician in his family
Jugurthine war
Where Marius fought rebelling tribe in northern africa, he did all the work but Sulla managed to capture the leader
The Italian war
the social war, civil war in which Rome's italian allied and controlled nations rebelled against Rome in protest of the fact that they had assisted Rome in gaining all its territory, but they weren't granted the same rights as lefitimate Roman citizens. They eventually gained citizenship to all free male italians
populares
Ambitious aristocrats seeking alternatize path to power used plebeian assembly and tribunes, thought Problem:plight of poor landless citizens, Solution: give them land and other assistance (similiar to modern day democrats)
optimates
Mostly nobiles (new upper class), controlled the senate, Problem: power of tribune/plebein assemly, solution: restore power to senate
legion
unit of legionaries around 2,700
legionarie
roman soldiers
testudo
turtle formation in Roman militray
decimation
pulling straws, 1/10 gets stoned to death by other 9, punishment in Roman army
auxilia
non-citizen soldiers, Augustus makes addition where if you serve in ______ for 24 years you gain citizenship
praetorian guard
established by Augustus, basically 9000 personal bodyguards for emperor,
consilium
advisors and agenda setters, composed of 15 senators and the consuls, established by Augustus
census
count of all people in Rome's terriory, used in taxation to be more fair, introduced by Augustus
domus Aurea
(Golden House)-House Nero built on ruin of the Great Fire, it was amazing and had revolving dining rome
year of 4 emperors
year when 4 emperors ruled, Vespasian was the 4th, he won by cutting off food supply from Egypt
1st Jewish revolt
________ was when the Jews rebelled against Romans and Vespasian was putting it down but then left to gain throne, Titus ended up ending it but he had to build a ramp up to plateua on Masada to finish them
colosseum
Finshed by Titus, grand arena for gladiatorial games and was once flooded for naval battle
great fire
Fire that burnt 3/14 territories in Rome to ground, Nero said Christians started it
arch
semi circle on top of doorway, roman architecture
keystone
last piece to finish an arch, roman architecture
concrete
volcanic dust mixed with standard lime mortar, used just like modern day __________, Roman
dome
arches crossing in a circular space in different directions and intersecting at center, Roman
vault
series of archs side by side
trajans market
grand market place built by Trajan
pantheon
temple in Rome to all the gods, it is a huge dome, used concrete
imago
lifelike mask of an ancestor most important to family, used in Rome
augurs
roman priests who interpret birds
sybilline books
written predictions, Romans consult, they burned in fire making Rome :(
5 good emperors
Nerva,Trajan,Adrian,Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelis. They all had good relations with senate and brought peace and prospertity to Rome
trajans column
great column with carvings of Trajan conquering Dacia, in trajans marketplace
hadrians wall
wall Hadrian had built after personally seeing how the soldiers in Britain had nothing to do and how they just drank all day
huns
scary people from the east, pushed Germanic tribes into Rome, during later empire
germanic tribes
tribes in Roman provinces, afraid of Huns
diocletian persecution
when Diocletian said Christians needed to be killed
martyr
somebody killed for a cause
Pax Deorum
similiar to Pax Romana, believed peace and prospertiy in Roman Empire was due to gods, when Christians arose thing went down hill
tetrarchy
rule of 4
Tetrarch
ruler of 1/2 of empire, in Diocletian's reform
Augusti
the main leader of 1/2 of tetrarchy
Caesares
the Augusti's heir, was ruler over a part of their Augusti's land
edict of milan
when Constantine made christianity legal
coloni
diocletian reform where free men who did not own land were bound to work on a land, ______ is the name of these men bound to the land
constantinople
new capital of Rome, made by Constantine, sort of like when Akhenaton made new city for his new religion in Egypt,
Nicene creed
when Constantine had bishops come together and make short summary of Christianity
visigoths
germanic tribe that sacks Rome, people in Constantine say ______can have all of Spain if they give Rome back, ______ agree
vandals
here the word vandalism comes from, they thoroughly destroyed Rome and left, came after visigoths, lived where Cartage used to be
depose
remove from thrown
byzantine empire
what the Empire is referred to after the city Rome fell
precepts for women
guide to women in chinese society written by Ban Zhao- the precepts were womanly virtue, womanly speech, womanly manner, and womanly merit
mystery religions
hellenistic cults into which members had to be initiated in order to learn their secrets. Here, they could find religious consolations that traditional religion could not provide: a change at mystical awakening, a systematic religious doctrine, a map to the afterlife, a communal worship and a band of spiritual fellowship
equestrians
new social class created by Gaius made of middle class Roman buisness men- these were the merchants contracted by the senate to carry out new legislature and therfore emerged as a new, wealthy class that gained its name from the fact that they were those in the military that could afford to buy horses
pontifex maximus
chief priest to a state region in rome