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Innate Behavior

a behavior that is influenced by genes and does not depend on learning

Learned Behavior

a behavior that has been learned from experience or observation


Movement of an animal or part of its body towards or away from a directional stimulus.


random movement in response to a stimulus


group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring


a group of people living in a particular local area


a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment


a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

10% Rule

only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.


The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.

Fossil fuels

a nonrenewable energy resource that forms in the Earth's crust for millions of years

Type 1 survivorship

when the young have a high probability of living and deaths are concentrated later in life - humans and elephants

Type 2 survivorship

death UNRELATED to age. ex) songbirds, seagulls + small mammals. many young dont survive.

Type 3 survivorship

the probability of death is greatest early in life - fish

Exponential growth curve

j-shaped curve showing the rapid increase in an exponentially growing population

Logistic growth curve

phase A is exponental growth, Phase B is when population reaches carrying capacity and stops increasing rapidly

Carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support


the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent


the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey


the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)


the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it


the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type

Six kingdoms

Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia

Interspecific competition

Competition between members of different species

Intraspecific competition

Competition between members of the same species

Nitrifying bacteria

Bacteria that change dissolved ammonia into nitrite compounds or nitrites into nitrate compounds.

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

bacteria that can use nitrogen in soil to make nitrogen compounds

Decomposing bacteria

break down dead matter

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