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28 terms

Words for Ecology

STUDY
PLAY
Innate Behavior
a behavior that is influenced by genes and does not depend on learning
Learned Behavior
a behavior that has been learned from experience or observation
Taxis
Movement of an animal or part of its body towards or away from a directional stimulus.
Kinesis
random movement in response to a stimulus
Species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Community
a group of people living in a particular local area
Ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
Population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
10% Rule
only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.
Deforestation
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
Fossil fuels
a nonrenewable energy resource that forms in the Earth's crust for millions of years
Type 1 survivorship
when the young have a high probability of living and deaths are concentrated later in life - humans and elephants
Type 2 survivorship
death UNRELATED to age. ex) songbirds, seagulls + small mammals. many young dont survive.
Type 3 survivorship
the probability of death is greatest early in life - fish
Exponential growth curve
j-shaped curve showing the rapid increase in an exponentially growing population
Logistic growth curve
phase A is exponental growth, Phase B is when population reaches carrying capacity and stops increasing rapidly
Carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Mutualism
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
Predation
the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey
Parasitism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
Commensalism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
Classification
the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type
Six kingdoms
Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
Interspecific competition
Competition between members of different species
Intraspecific competition
Competition between members of the same species
Nitrifying bacteria
Bacteria that change dissolved ammonia into nitrite compounds or nitrites into nitrate compounds.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
bacteria that can use nitrogen in soil to make nitrogen compounds
Decomposing bacteria
break down dead matter