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Kaplan and Deblij part 1

almost cumulative.... DEBLIJ chapters 2,3, 6,7, 8, 11, 13, and unit 2 KAPLAN chapters 1, 2, 3
STUDY
PLAY
Laws of Migration
Most migration is due to economic causes
Most migration is over a short distance, and often occurs in steps
Long-range migrants usually move to urban areas
Each migration produces a movement in the opposite direction (every action has an equal and opposite reaction)
Rural dwellers are more migratory than urban dwellers
Within their own country females are more migratory than males; Males are more migratory over long distances
Most migrants are adults
Gravity Model
Shows that interaction is proportional to the multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them; this phenomenon is distance decay (the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interactions)
Thomas Malthus
(Person)Gave a dystopian view of the future (1798); Food production increases arithmetically, whereas human reproduction increases geometrically (doubling each generation); despite checks on population, there would continue to be starvation.
The Demographic Transition Model
A model used to represent the process of explaining the transformation from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. It has 4 definitive stages:
In stage one (high stationary), pre-industrial society, death rates and birth rates are high and roughly in balance.
In stage two (early expanding), that of a developing country, the death rates drop rapidly due to improvements in food supply and sanitation, but without a corresponding fall in birth rates this produces an imbalance, resulting in a large increase in population.
In stage three (late expanding), birth rates fall due to access to contraception, increases in wages, urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes. Population growth slows.
In stage four (low stationary) there are both low birth rates and low death rates due to the expansion of wealth and technology.
"Stage five" (hypothetical), birth rates may drop to well below replacement level as has happened in countries like Germany, Italy, and Japan, leading to a shrinking population. This may be a threat to many industries that rely on population growth, and would likely create an economic burden on the shrinking working population.
The Epidemiological Transition
Occurs as a country modernizes. Developments in medicine (e.g., antibiotics such as penicillin), drastically reduces mortality rates and extends life expectancy. Further development and urbanization results in declining fertility rates, and a transition to chronic and degenerative diseases as more likely causes of death. This occurs in three phases:
1. Age of Pestilence and Famine: mortality is high and fluctuating (low population growth); low and variable life expectancy (20 to 40 years)
2. Age of Receding Pandemics: mortality progressively declines; average life expectancy increases steadily (30 to 50 years); population growth begins to be exponential
3. Age of Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases: mortality continues to decline and eventually approaches stability at a relatively low level
The Isolated State Model
Discussed agricultural location as primarily a factor of transportation cost and profit maximization by farmers through his model. For the image to the left - the black dot represents a city; 1 (white) dairy and market gardening; 2 (green) forest for fuel and building materials; 3 (yellow) grains and field crops; 4 (red) ranching; the outer, dark green area represents wilderness where agriculture is not profitable.
Burgess
Created the Concentric Zone Model.
His work is based on bid-rent (the amount that people will pay for the land) (Ex: wealthier families tended to live much further away from the CBD because they could afford automobiles)
The Concentric Zone Model
Structural model of the American central city (based on Chicago in the 1920s); the zones identified are:
1) the central business district (CBD);
2) the transition zone of mixed residential, factory, and commercial use (low residential density);
3) low-class residential homes (the "inner city" with high residential density);
4) better quality middle-class homes (with lower density than the previous zone)
5) upper-class commuters zone (with the lowest density)
Hoyt
(Person) Created the Sector Model
The Sector Model
Improvements in transportation made the Burgess Model more obsolete. Hoyt (the creator of this model) observed that zones expanded outward from the city center along electric trolley lines, railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries; wedge-shaped patterns -- or sectors -- emanating from the CBD and centered on major transportation routes.
Christaller
Created the Central Place Theory (Person)
The Central Place Theory
Designed to explain the spatial distribution of human settlements. Central places are settlements providing services to their surrounding "market areas". The ordering of settlements based on the number and level of services they provide produces a hierarchy. Hierarchies are often complicated because market areas of different-order settlements overlap (shown as solid and broken lines).
The theory relied on two main concepts:
Threshold - the minimum market needed to bring about the selling of a good or service.
Range - the maximum distance people will travel to acquire the good or service.
Four generalizations can be made regarding the spacing, size and function of settlements. The greater the size of the central place:
1. the fewer they are in number;
2. the greater the distance between them;
3. the greater the number and range of functions;
4. the greater the number of higher-order services (e.g., arenas, universities, museums, zoos, etc.)
Weber
Created the Least Cost Theory (Person)
The Least Cost Theory
A variable cost analysis emphasizing the motive of manufacturing plants to pursue cost minimization along three areas: 1) transportation, 2) labor, and 3) agglomeration (too much can lead to high rents and wages, circulation problems - and ultimately to deglomeration); in the weight-losing case, firms locate closer to the raw materials to reduce cost (e.g., metal smelting, paper products); in the weight-gaining case, firms locate closer to the market (e.g., bottling, bread products).
Rostow
Introduced the Modernization Model (Person)
The Modernization Model
A liberal model (stating that all states may develop in the sane way); postulates that economic modernization occurs in five basic stages:
1) Traditional society - economy focuses on mostly subsistence or primary-based activities; society is rigid, negatively viewing change
2) Preconditions for takeoff - development of more productive commercial and cash crops, increased investment and technology; social mobility begins as elite promote change
3) Takeoff - a critical mass of resource exploitation, labor, and capital propel the society toward secondary activities with a few leading industries; export-oriented
4) Drive to Maturity - diversification of industries shift to more domestic consumption; rapid development of transportation and social infrastructure (e.g., bridges and schools)
5) Age of Mass Consumption - modernization and urbanization diffuses throughout the country; industrialization dominates, but a rise in tertiary (and quaternary and quinary) activities results; most have disposable income beyond basic needs (e.g., automobiles)
Wallerstein
Introduced the 3 tiered World-Systems Analysis (Person)
The World Systems Analysis
A three-tiered structuralist model (stating that regional disparities are the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic and political system, and therefore cannot be changed easily).

It postulates a "one-world" economic and political framework (not focusing on the independent economies of nation-states). The global division of labor consists of one economy divided between the "core" (most developed countries (MDCs) - e.g., US, UK, Japan) which dominates other countries; the "semi-periphery" (Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) - e.g., Brazil, China, India) which is dominated (by the core) while at the same time dominating others (the periphery); and the "periphery" (Least Developed Countries (LDCs) - e.g., Congo, Zambia, Haiti) which is dominated due to dependency on the more powerful global economies.
The Multiple Nuclei Model
Based on the idea that people have greater movement due to increased car ownership. This increase of movement reduced the primacy of the CBD and allowed for the specialization of regional centers (e.g., nuclei such as light manufacturing, business parks, residential areas, etc.).
The Peripheral Model
The US urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by transportation nodes (e.g., a beltway or ring road to avoid traffic congestion). The periphery acts as a functional metropolitan complex, not a series of separate CBDs. It represents urban decentralization (with an increase in edge cities) and the US transcendence into a post-industrial society (from predominantly secondary economic activities to tertiary, quaternary, and quinary activities).
Acid rain
a growing environmental peril whereby acidified rainwater severely damages plant and animal life; caused by the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere when coal, oil, and natural gas are burned, especially in major manufacturing zones
Aquifers
subterranean, porous, water-holding rocks that provide millions of wells with steady flows of water
Atmosphere
blanket of gases surrounding the Earth and located soem 350 miles above the Earth's surface
Biodiversity
the total variety of plant and animal species in a particular place; biological diversity
Chlorofluorocarbons
synthetic organic compounds first created in the 1950s and used primarily as refrigerants and as propellants. The role of CFCs in the destruction of the ozone layer led to the signing of an international agreement
Deforestation
The clearing and destruction of forests to harvest wood for consumption, clear land for agricultural uses, and make way for expanding settlement frontiers
Environmental stress
the threat to environmental security by human activity such as atmospheric and groundwater pollution, deforestation, oil spills, and ocean dumping
Glaciations
a period of global cooling during which continental ice sheets and mountain glaciers expand
Global warming
theory that the Earth is gradually warming as a result of an enhanced greenhouse effect in the Earth's atmosphere caused by ever-increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced by various human activities
Holocene
The current interglaciation period, extending from 10,000 years ago to the present on the geologic time scale
Hydrologic cycle
the system of exchange involving water in its various forms as it continually circulates among the atmosphere, the oceans, and above and below the land surface
Interglaciation
sustained warming phase between glaciations during an ice age
Little Ice Age
temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation
Mass depletions
loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species
Mass extinctions
mass destruction of most species
Montreal Protocol
an international agreement signed in 1987 by 105 countries and the European Community (now the European Union). The protocol called for a reduction in the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) of 50% by 2000. Subsequent meetings in London (1990) and Copenhagen (1992) accelerated the timing of CFC phaseout, and a worldwide complete ban has been in effect since 1996
Oxygen cycle
cycle whereby natural processes and human activity consume atmospheric oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and the Earth's forests and other flora, through photosynthesis, consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen
Ozone layer
layer in the upper atmosphere located between 30 and 45 kilometers above the Earth's surface where stratospheric ozone is most densely concentrated. The ozone layer acts as a filter for the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays
Pacific Ring of Fire
ocean- girdling zone of crustal instability, volcanism, and earthquakes resulting from the tectonic activity along plate boundaries in the region
Pangea
the primeval supercontinent, hypothesized by Alfred Wegener, that broke apart and formed the continents and oceans as we know them today; consisted of two parts- a northern Laurasia and a southern Gondwana
Photosynthesis
the formation of carbohydrates in living plants from water and carbon dioside, through the action of sunlight on chlorophyll in those plants, including algae
Pleistocene
the most recent epoch of the Late Cenozoic Ice Age, beginning about 1.8 million years ago and marked by as many as 20 glaciations and interglaciations of which the current warm phase, the Holocene epoch, has witnessed the rise of human civilation
Radioactive waste
hazardous-waste-emitting radiation from nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons factories, and nuclear equipment in hospitals and industry
Renewable resources
resources that can regenerate as they are exploited
Sanitary landfills
Disposal sites for non-hazardous solid waste that is spread in layers and compacted to the smallest practical volume. The sites are typically designed with floors made of materials to treat seeping liquids and are covered by soil as the wastes are compacted and deposited into the landfill
Soil erosion
The wearing away of the land surface by wind and moving water
Solid waste
Non-liquid, non-soluable materials ranging from municipal garbage to sewage sludge; agricultural refuse; and mining residues
Toxic waste
hazardous waste causing danger from chemicals and infectious organisms
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the ozone layer
the first international convention aimed at addressing the issue of ozone depletion. Held in 1985, the Vienna Convention was the predecessor to the Montreal Protocol
Wisonconsinian Glaciation
the most recent glacial period of the Pleistocene, enduring about 100,000 years and giving way, beginning about 18,000 years ago, to the current interglacial, the Holocen
activity spaces
the space within which daily activity occurs
arithmetic population density
the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit
asylum
shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state
census
a periodic and official count of a country's population
chain migration
pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links
child mortality rate
A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population
chronic or degenerative diseases
Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.
colonization
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
crude birth rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
crude death rate
The number of deaths per year per thousand people in a population
cyclic movements
Movement - for example, nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
demographic transition
multistage model, based on Western Europe's experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by a convergence of birth rates and death rates at a lower overall level.
deportation
the act of a government sending a migrant out of its country and back to the migrant's home country
distance decay
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
dot map
maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as population
doubling time
the time required for a population to double in size
endemic AIDS
a diseases that is particular to a locality or a region
eugenic population policies
government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others
expansive population policies
government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
explorers
a person examining a region that is unknown to them
forced migration
human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate
genetic or inherited diseases
Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in a human.
genocide
the planned annihilation of a racial, political, or cultural group
gravity model
A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them
guest workers
legal immigrant who has work visa, usually short term
immigration
the act of a person migrating into a new country or area
immigration laws
laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state
immigration wave
Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination.
infant mortality rate
A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.
infectious diseases
diseases that are caused by infecting organisms; they can be passed from person to person.
internal migration
human movement within a nation-state, such as going westward and southward movements in the US
internally displaced persons
People who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee.
international migration
human movement involving movement across international boundaries
intervening opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
islands of development
Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
kinship links
types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success
laws of migration
developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, 5 laws that predict the flow of migrants
life expectancy
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live. Normally expressed in the context of a particular state.
megalopolis
terms used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world; formerly used specifically with an uppercase "M" to refer to Boston-Washington multimetropolitan corridor on the northeastern seaboard pf the United States, but now used generically with a lower-case "m" as a synonym for conurbation
migrant labor
a common type of periodic movemetn involving millions of worker in the US and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross internationl borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances
migration
a change in residence intended to be permanent
military service
another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million US citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
natural increase
Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths. Natural increase of a population does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.
newborn mortality rate
the number of infants who die within the first month of life per 1000 live births
nomadism
movement among a definite set of places.
one child policy
A program established by the Chinese government in 1979 to slow population growth in China.
periodic movements
for example, college attendence or military service- that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
physiological population density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land
population composition
structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education
population density
a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
population distribution
description of locations on the Earth's surface where populations live
population explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase
population pyramids
Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each age group is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population. The males in each age group are represented to the left of the center line of each horizontal bar. The females in each age group are represented to the right of the center line.
pull factors
positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attact people to new locations from other areas
push factors
negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
quotas
established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
refugees
people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country
regional scale
Interations occuring within a region, in a regional setting.
remittances
money migrants send back to family and friends in their home coutnries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer coutnries
repatriation
A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non-governmental organization
restrictive population policies
government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
selective immigration
process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating
stationary population level
the level at which a national population ceases to grow
step migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city.
transhumance
a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
voluntary migration movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity
not because they are forced to move
agribusiness
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
agricultural hearth
where a certain type of agriculture originates
agriculture
the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
animal domestication
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
biotechnology
the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
cereal grains
corn, wheat, rice, and other grasses
Colombian Exchange
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
commercial agriculture
term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor fores, and the latest technoloty
desertification
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
dispersed settlement pattern
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
enclosure
process of taking over and fencing off land once shared by peasant farmers
erosion
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
extensive agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
First Agricultural Revolution
dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
new organisms created by altering the genetic material (DNA) of existing organisms; usually in an attempt to remove undesirable or create desirable characteristics in the new organism.
Green Revolution
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
horticulture
cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes
hunters and gatherers
early people who traveled from place to place, hunting and collecting food
Koppen climactic classification system
developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the worlds climates based on temperature and precipitation
livestock ranching
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
long-lot survey system
distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
luxury crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Mediterranean agriculture
Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
metes and bounds system
A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.
monoculture
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
organic agriculture
approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
plant domestication
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
plantation agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
primary economic activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment- such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
primogeniture
system of inheritance from father to eldest son for ownership or possession of land
quaternary economic activity
service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services
quinary economic activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill. Examples include scientific research and high-level management
rectangular survey system
Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
root crops
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the roots of or the cutting from the plants
Second Agricultural Revolution
dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
secondary economic activity
economic activity involoving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
seed crops
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants
shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
slash-and-burn farming
A farming method in which people clear fields by cutting and burning trees and grasses, the ashes of which served to fertilize the soil.
subsistence
self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology and emphasizes food production for local consumption, not for trade
tertiary economic activity
economic activity associatedwith the provision of services-such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
township-and-range system
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
Von Thunen model
A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
"third wave" of democratization
systems based on individual freedoms and civil liberities and boasting fairer civic institutions, more active media , objective judiciaries, and stronger property rights
Balance of power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
bi-national state
two nations contained in one state
boundary
vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below, and the airspace above the surface
centrifugal force
forces that tend divide a country such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
centripetal force
forces that tend to unify a country such as widespread commitment to a national culture shared ideological objectives, and a common faith
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years
colonialism
rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place
command economy
economic system in which a central authority is in command of the economy; a centrally planned economy
compact states
a state that possesses a rougly circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions
confederal system
A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.
consequent boundaries
the boundaries between states are set by ethical differences, especially those based on language and/or religion- a.k.a. cultural boundaries.
core area
the portion of a country that contains its economic, political, intellectual, and cultural focus.
core-periphery
Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
cultural boundary
boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity
democratization
the spread of representative government to more countries and the process of making governments more representative
devolution
the process whereby regions in a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
economic force
The effects of supply and demand, and other forms of competitive pressure, on businesses.
electoral geography
The study of the interactions among space, place, and region and the conduct and results of elections.
elongated states
states with a long and narrow shape
enclaves
countries surrounded or almost surrounded by another country.
ethnic force
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
ethno nationalism
The identification and loyalty a person may feel for his or her nation
European Constitution
A European Union document not yet ratified, which incorporates a charter of fundamental rights; merges the judicial, economic, and defense aspects of the EU; establishes the European Council; and raises the number of seats in Parliament, among other things
European Monetary Union
agreement among the participating member states of the European Union to adopt a single hard currency and monetary system.
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
exclaves
A bounded piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.
Federal system
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
Forward capital
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention
fragmentation
when responsibility for a policy is dispersed among several units within bureaucracy
fragmented state
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Freidrich Ratzel
claimed geography was the study of influences of the natural environment on people
frontiers
The weakly defined political boundary regions
functional disputes
a disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration.
geometric boundary
Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.
geopolitics
the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
gerrymandering
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
globalization
The expansion of economics, political and cultural processes to the point that they beome global in scale and impact.
government
the system or form by which a community or other political unit is governed
heartland theory
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
institutions
a set of rules, known and shared by the community, that structure political interactions in particular ways
integration
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
internal boundaries
boundaries inside a state, and the state divides itself up into smaller divisions (United States)
irredentism
The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state.
landlocked states
state surrounded by other land with no direct outlet to the sea
majority districting
area in which the majority of the constituents in the district are racial or ethnic minorities. used to sway electoral votes
market economy
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
marketization
the state's recreation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value.
median-line principle
lines made to distribute water ways when states are within 200 miles of each other
microstates
independent states that are small in both area and population.
minority districting
A rule by which the design of new electoral boundaries, must where possible, create electoral districts which have a majority population of some group which is a national minority
mixed economy
an economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion
monetary policy
policy that involves changing the rate of growth of the money supply in circulation in order to affect the cost and availability of credit
multicore state
a state that has more than one dominant region in terms of economics or politics (e.g., US, South Africa)
multinational state
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
nation
a politically organized body of people under a single government
nation state
When a nation and a state occupy the same territory
nationalism
the aspiration for national independence felt by people under foreign domination
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
perforated states
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state- ex. South Africa
physical boundary
political boundary that separates territiories according to natural features in the landscpae, such as mountains, rivers or deserts
political culture
widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to government and to one another.
political geography
the subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface
politicization of religion
the use of religious principles to promote political ends and vise versa
politics
the profession devoted to governing and to political affairs
Positional disputes
Conflict over location, usually associated with physical boundaries.
primate city
A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
privatization
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
prorupted state
A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension, leading away from the main territory.
relative location
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
resource disputes
disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds.
Rimland theory
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
security council
Five permanent members( US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.
Separatist movement
refers to the social movements for a particular group of people to separate from a dominant political institution under which they suffer
Shatter belts
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
sovereignty
a principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
spatial force
a devolutionary force that has to do with the margins of the state
stateless nation
A nationality that is not represented by a state.
states
politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community- they have defined territories, permanent populations, governments, and are recognized by other states
supranational organization
A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organization
territorial disputes
disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession or control of land
territorial morphology
A state's geographical shape, which can affect its spatial cohension and political viability.
territoriality
a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended.
three pillars
Informal term denoting the main areas in which the EU has worked since the Maastricht Treaty. 1. the traditional involvement in trade and other economic matters 2. cooperation in justice and home affairs 3. the desire to create a Common Foreign and Security Policy which is the most visionary and controversial aspect of the EU today
Unitary States
a state in which no other governmental body but the central government has any areas of power that are exclusively under its control.
backward reconstruction
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language
British Received Pronunciation
the accent of standard English in England, with a relationship to regional accents similar to the relationship in other European languages between their standard varieties and their regional forms
conquest theory
one major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues
Creole/creolized language
a language that began as a pigdin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the mother tongue
Culture
The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
deep reconstruction
technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that preceded it.
Denglish
an influx of English, or pseudo-English, vocabulary into the German or Dutch language through travel and the widespread usage of English in advertising, business, and information technology
dialect chains
A set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related.
dialects
Local or regional characteristics of a language. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary.
dispersal hypothesis
Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and onto the Balkans.
Ebonics
teaching standard American English to native speakers of African American Vernacular English by creating a distinction between standard American English and AAVE
extinct language
Language without any native speakers.
Franglaise
a mangled combination of English and French, produced either by poor knowledge of one or the other language or for a humorous effect
Germanic languages
Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south.
global language
The language used most commonly around the world; defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language, or prevalence of use in commerce and trade
Ideograms
graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept
isogloss
A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
isolated language
a natural language with no genealogical relationship with other languages; not proven to have common ancestors with any other language
Language
a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
language branch
any of various subgroups for a language family
language convergence
The collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of people with different languages; the opposite of language divergence.
language divergence
the opposite of language convergence; a process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages
language families
Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
Lingua franca
a term deriving from "Frankish language" and applying to a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish, and even some Arabic. Today it refers to a "common language" a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce.
literary tradition
language that is written as well as spoken
monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
mutual intelligibility
The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking.
nostratic
The language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages (including Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian), the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
official language
a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction; typically the language used in the courts, parliament and administration
pigdin language
when parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary.
place
The fourth theme of Geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; uniqueness of a location.
Proto-Indo- European
Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from Scandinavia to North Africa and from North America through parts of Asia to Australia
Renfrew hypothesis
hypothesis that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families: Europe's Indo-European languages (Anatolia), North African and Arabian languages (western arc of fertile Crescent) and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India (eastern arc)
Romance languages
Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed.
Slavic languages
languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
sound shift
slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
Spanglish
the mix of Spanish and English, by people who speak parts of the two languages, or whose normal language is different from that of the country where they live
standard language
the variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
subfamilies
Divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent.
toponym
place name
Vulgar Latin
any of the nonstandard forms of Latin from which the Romance languages developed
Absolute Location
location based on latitude and longitude coordinates
Aristotle and Plato
Greek philosophers who believed that the earth was round
Cartograms
maps that assign space by the size o some datum. For example, world population is often illustrated in a cartogram, countries with larger population appear larger on the map
Cartographers
Map makers; they are very concerned with the problem of distortion
Concentration
The density particular of phenomena over an area; in terms of concentration, objects can be clustered or agglomerated
Conformal Maps
Maps that distort area but keep shapes intact
Conic projection maps
maps that put a cone over the Earth and keep distance intact but lose directional qualities
Cultural Landscape
Cultural attributes of an area often used to describe a place (e.g., buildings, theaters, places of worship).
Cylindrical maps
maps that show true direction but lose distance (e.g., a Mecator map).
Dark Ages
A time when academic thought was not advancing in Europe but was very active across the rest of the world
Density
Describes how often an object occurs within a given area or space; most often used in terms of population density
Diffusion
describes the movement or spread of principle or idea
Distribution
the term that came from the idea that everything on the earth's surface must have a physical location. There are 3 different aspects of distribution: density, concentration, pattern
Environmental determinism
the important development in the field of geography in the early 20th century that stated that human behaviors are direct results of their environment. This philosophy gave some people the justification to believe that Europeans were smarter, because they live in a more temperate climate
Equal-Area projection maps
Maps that try to distribute distortion equally throughout the map; these maps distort shapes.
Expansion diffusion
the term used to describe the spread of a characteristics from a central node through various means. There are 3 different types of expansion diffusion: hierarchical, contagious, and stimulus diffusion
Flow-line maps
maps that are good for determining movement, such as migration trends
Formal Regions
Regions where anything and everything inside has the same characteristic or phenomena
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
A way for geographers to obtain new information, GIS layers geographic information into a new map, showing specific types of geographic data. Watershed, population density, highways, and agricultural data are geographic features that can be used as layers of data.
Geographical Positioning System (GPS)
A way for geographers to obtain new information, GPS technology is found in cars and cellphones; it uses the Earth's latitude and longitude coordinates to determine an exact location
Geography
the descriptions of the Earth's surface and the people and processes that shape those landscapes
Gerardus Mecator
One of the first people to produce a world map that showed, with relative accuracy the general outline of the continents. His maps exaggerated the landforms around the polar regions, because all lines of latitude and longitude meet at right angles
Hierarchical Diffusion
the notion that phenomenon spreads as a result of the social elite, such as political leaders, entertainment leaders, or famous athletes, spreading societal ideas or trends
human geography
the study of human characteristics on the landscape including population, agriculture, urbanization, and culture
latitudes (parallels)
parallel lines that run east/west of the earth; the highest degree of latitude is 90 degrees
longitudes (meridians)
parallels that run north/south on the surface of the Earth.
Maps
The basic tools used by geographers to convey information. Maps generally are a representation of the Earth's surface, although they do come in many forms
Mental Map
A map contains what a person believes to exist; most people have mental maps, and they prove to be a useful tool in communication
Middle Ages
A time after the fall of the Roman Empire and before the Enlightenment
Migration diffusion
the term used to describe the physical spread of people moving from one place to another
Oval projection maps
Maps that combine the cylindrical and conic projections (e.g. the Molleweide projection)
Pattern
Describing how objects are organized in space, patterns can be anything from triangular or linear or even 3D
Planar maps
Maps that show true direction and examine the Earth from one point, usually from a pole or polar direction (e.g. an azimuthal map)
Possiblist
an approach to geography favored by contemporary geographers that suggest humans are not a product of their environment but possess skills nessacary to change their environment to satisfy human needs. With this approach, people can determine their own outcomes without regard to location
Ptolemy
Wrote the series "Guide to Geography", which gave very detailed descriptions of cities and people during the Greek period when the Roman Empire took control of the Mediterrainean region
Region
A concept used to link different locations together based on any parameter the geographer chooses
Relative location
A location that is based on, or refers to, another feature on the earths surface
Scale
The relationship between the size of the map to the size of the planet it represents; the dimension into which one is trying to cast the real world
Spacial Interaction
Concerned with how linked a place is to the outside world, this theme of geography deals with mainly the area, because how well an area is connected to the world determines its importance
Thematic map
Used to describe some type of geographic phenomenon, thematic maps can be represented in various ways: area class maps, area symbol maps, cartograms, choropleth maps, digital images, dot maps, flow line maps, isoline maps, point symbol maps and proportional symbol maps
Vernacular Regions (Perceptual region)
a region exists primarily in the individuals perception or feelings.
Zheng He
in the mid 1400s, this famous chinese explorer wrote in his journal of a coast with tall trees and mountains expanding as far as the eye can see. it is suspected that he may have come across the coast of alaska or even the west coast of the united states. His most famous explorations include those around the indian ocean.
Arithmetic Density
Determined by dividing the population of a country by the total land area
Coyote
A nickname given to people who is hired to assist illegal immigrants into the United States, often at a cost that does not depend upon success of entry
Crude Birth Rate
The number of live births per year per 1,000 people
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Cyclic Movement
The seasonal migration of livestock to areas where food is more available
Demographic Equation
Determines the population growth for the world by subtracting the global deaths from global births
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics that analyzes population trends and predicts future occurrences based on current statistics
Dependency ratio
Determined by comparing the sum of persons age 0-14 and over 65 to those 15-64; children and the elderly depend on the population's workforce for support
Distance Decay
The lessening of a phenomenon as the distance from the hearth increases
Dowry Death
This is the term used to describe a situation in certain countries where the bride is killed because of her inability to pay the promised dowry
Emigrants
people who leave a country or region
gravity model
The greater the sphere of influence a city has, the greater its impact ("gravity?") on other cities around it. This model is usually tested by measuring travel, phone calls,and overall trade between 2 or more cities
Immigrant
A person who emigrates to another country
Industrial Revolution
Starting the mid 1700's, many European countries developed new technologies, spurring a more mechanized system of farming and eventually moving them to a stage 3 industrial economy. This transformation brought about many changes, including mass migration to cities and mass production in farming
Infant Mortality Rate
The number of babies that die each year before their first birthday
Intercontinental Migration
The movement of people across an ocean or continent
Intervening obstacle
A physical or mental factor that forces individual to halt and often abort their migration
Intervening Opportunity
Favorable economic opportunity or environmental amenity that causes migrants to stop and stay at a location along their journey
J-curve
Developed by Ian Bremme, this curve maps a country based on its "openness" and "stability." The movements of countries on both of these scales are largely dependent on their economic progress
Net Migration
The number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants
Overpopulation
the lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of a population in a defined are determined by carrying capacity
Physiological density
Similar to arithmetic density but considered more accurate, this is determined by dividing the population of a country only by the land that is usable to humans
place utility
incentives such as tax breaks and increased recreational opportunities that communities offer to entice people to move there
Quotas
Limits put on immigration by certain countries
Refugees
people who are forced to leave their country and seek refuge elsewhere, often because of religious or political persecution that may include death
Sustainability
The saving of resources for future generations to allow them to live at the same standard of living or higher than the population is living at today
Thomas Malthus
A British economist who, in the late 1700s' concluded that the rate of population was growing faster than agricultural productivity
Total Fertility rate
The number of babies that an average woman delivers during her child bearing years
Transhumance
The movement of live stock to higher elevation during the summer to escape the heat in valleys and to lower elevation during the winter to escape the severe cold of the mountains
Zero Population growth
describes a population in which the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate
Agriculture
The raising of animals or the growing of crops on tended land to obtain food for primary consumption by a farmer's family or for sale off the farm
Biotechnology
A precise science that involves altering the genetic strands of agricultural products to increase productivity, biotechnology is developed mainly in science laboratories and is then tested on farm fields around the world, where it has been, for the most part, extremely successful
Carl Sauer
Professor of geography at the university of California--Berkerly who started the field of cultural ecology, and began hearths of seed agriculture and vegetative planting, Carl Sauer was one of the most vehement critics of philosophy of environmental determinism. Instead he believed that humans had power over their environments and weren't simply a part of them
Commercial farming
the farming of products for sale off the farm, commercial farming is usually a big business in developed countries and requires the use of heavy machinery
Continentality
Describes the fact that an area's proximity to a body of water affects its temperature (e.g. because oceans have a moderating influence on temperatures, areas near oceans experience less extreme temperature variation)
Creative Destruction
Removing what nature originally produced location to grow what is desired
Crop Rotation
The planting of different crops each year to replenish the soil's nutrients that were lost to the previous crop
Double-cropping
the growing of two crops per year to double agricultural output
Environmental Modification
The introduction of manmade chemicals and practices that, at time, have drastic effects on native soil and vegetation
Farm Crisis
Occurs when farmers are too productive, causing a surplus of crops and, therefore, lowering prices and producing less revenue for farmers
feedlots
farms that specialize in cattle or hogs and may have thousands of heads of livestock, feedlots can create large amounts of waste runoff, air pollution, and groundwater contamination
First Agricultural Revolution
the slow change from nonagriculturally-based ones through societies to more agriculturally-based ones through gradual understanding of seeds, watering, and plant care
Food Chain
After harvesting, commercial grain is sent to the market area, usually semi-trailers, where it is sold to manufacturers who makes a product with the grain, such as bread. The product is then sold to a wholesaler, who sells it to a grocery store, where individual customers can purchase it
Grain Farming
the mass planting and harvesting of grain crops such as wheat, barley, and millet
Intertillage
the manual clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, and other manual equipment
Johann Heinrich von Thunen
developed and Agricultural Land Use Model that suggested that certain crops were grown in direct were grown in direct relation to their distance to market
Long Lots
a system of farming where lots up to a half mile or more extend back from river, which farmers use as their primary means of hauling their agricultural products to the market
Mixed livestock with crop production
a type of farming where cows are raised on a farm and are fed with crops that are grown on the same farm
Planned economy (government-controlled economy)
An economy in which the government dictates the quantity and type of agriculture products that farmers can produce
plantation agriculture
often occurring in less developed countries, plantation agriculture involves cultivation of one crop to be sold in more developed countries
primary economic activities
subsistence farming based on title mechanization. This is currently performed by aboriginal tribes in Australia
Quartiary economic industries
Activities that produce nothing one can physically touch but are important in society
Quinary Sectors
Usually involving only about 10-15 percent of the workforce in an economy, these sectors employ the people who make the decisions concerning the trade of commodities at the governmental and business executive levels
Second Agricultural Revolution (SAR)
Coinciding with the Industrial revolution, the SAR used the increased technology from the industrial revolution as means to increase farm productivity. This revolution started exponential population increase
Secondary economic activities
industrial activities in which factories take raw materials, such as natural resources, and produce some type of product for either trade or sale. Many people in the United States are still employed in secondary economic activity
seed agriculture
the taking of seeds from existing plants and planting them to produce new plants
shifting cultivation
the moving of farm fields after several years in search for more productive soil after depleting the nutrients in the original field
Slash and Burn Agriculture
the process of burning the physical landscape for both added space and additional nutrients put in the soil
subsistence farming
producing the food that their families need to survive, subsistence farming depend on crops that they grow and the animal products they raise for their daily subsistence
Suitcase farms
these farms, where no one resides permanently and migrant workers provide the majority of manual labor cheaply, go against the grain of traditional farming in the United States
tertiary economic activity
service activities in which an increasing number of people are involved in selling goods rather than producing them
Third Agricultural Revolution (Green Revolution)
This transformation began in the latter half of the 20th century and corresponded with exponential population growth around the world
Location
The position of something on earth's surface
Space
The physical gap or distance between two objects
Scale
The relationship between the size of an object or distance between objects on a map and the size of the actual object or distance on earth's surface
Place
A specific point on earth with human and physical characteristics the distinguish it from other points
Pattern
The arrangement of objects on earth's surface in relationship to one another
Regionalization
The organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas
Globalization
The expansion of economic, political, and cultural activities to the point that they reach and have impact on many areas of the word
Spatial Organization
The location of places, people, and events, and the connections among place and landscapes
Landscapes
The overall appearance of an area that is shaped by both human and natural influences
Human Geography
Focuses on people. Where are they? How are they alike and similar? How do they interact? How do they change/use the natural landscapes?
Physical Geography
Focuses on the natural environment itself. Mountains, glaciers, coastlines, climates, soils, plants. Cannot exist without Human Geography because the two terms are intertwined
Spacial Perspective
Means that they notice patterns of both natural human environments, distributions of people, and locations of all kinds of objects. The way places and things are arranged and organized on the surface of the earth
Absolute Location
Latitude and longitude
Relative Location
Locations in relation to other human and physical features on the landscape. Location in relation to something else
Mercator Projection
Distorts sizes of areas close to the north and south poles
Robinson Projection
Tried to correct the mercator(distorted N&S poles) projection by curving the lines inward on the paper. An attempt to balance all distortions by making errors in shape, size, direction, and distance. General use-wall maps in classrooms
Toponyms
Names of places on Earth or maps
Site
The physical and human-transformed characteristics of a place-climate,topography,soil,elevation
Globalization
The expansion of economic, political, and cultural activites to the point that they reach and have impact on many areas of the word
Space Time compression
the changes that rapid connections among places and regions have brought
Acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Culture
sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society
Folk Culture
cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, customs, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities
Popular culture
cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies
Local culture
a group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others
Material culture
art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
Nonmaterial culture
the beliefs practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people
Hierarchial diffusion
ideas, products, etc, move from key cities (hearths), to famous locations/ people, to the "average Joe"
Hearth
the area where an idea or cultural trait originates
Cultural hearth
center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.
Assimilation
process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities, or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture; often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence
Custom
practice routinely followed by a group of people
Cultural appropriation
the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit
Neolocalism
the seeking out of regional culture in response to uncertainty of the modern world
Ethnic neighborhood
neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitian city and constructed by or composed of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs
Commodification
process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy
Authenticity
in the context of local cultures or customs, the accuracy with which the single sterotypical or typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs
Distance decay
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
Time-space compression
term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
Reterritorialization
with respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own
Cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape; visible imprint of human activity and ______ on the ________; layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the ______ by the activities of various human occupants
Placelessness
defined by the geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
Global-local continuum
notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa
Glocalization
process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
Folk-housing regions
a region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area
Diffusion routes
the spatial trajectory through which the cultural traits or other phenomena spread
Artifacts
object made and used by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced
Contagious diffusion
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural determinism
belief that the culture in which people are raised determines who they are at emotional and behavioral levels
Ethnic religion
religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts
Ethnocentrism
tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups
Isogloss
boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Time-distance decay
declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source
Religion
"a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities."
Secularism
the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife, opposite of theocracy
Monotheistic religion
worship a single deity, a God or Allah
Polythesitic religion
worship many deities or gods
Animistic religion
centered on the belief that inanimate objects, such as mountains, boulders, rivers, and trees, possess spirits and should therefore be revered (worshipped)
Universalizing religion
actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal
Hinduism
one of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back to over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan; it is unique among the world's religions in that does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins
caste system
traditional division of Hindu society into various categories; there are four main varnas; or classes:Brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya, and shudra; each class contains certain subgroups, resulting in more than three thousand categories
Buddhism
religion founded in the sixth century BCE and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would some through knowedge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; it splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict social hierarchy maintained by Hinduism
Shintoism
religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism; it focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship
Taoism
religion believed to have been founded by Lao-Tsu and based upon his book entitled "Tao-te-ching" or "Book of the Way" Lao-Tsu focused on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature
Feng Shui
literally "wind-water" The chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities; structures and objects are positioned in an effort to channel flows of shen-chi ("life-breath") in favorable ways
Confucianism
a philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture
Judaism
religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god; according to its teaching, Abraham and God have a covenant in which the followers agree to worship only on God, and God agrees to protect his chosen people, the followers of this religion
Diaspora
from the Greek "to disperse," a term describing forceful or coluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place; originally denoting the dispersal of Jews, it is increasingly applied to other population dispersals
Zionism
the movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land
Christianity
religion based on the teachings of Jesus; according to this teaching, Jesus in the son of God, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to God's plan
Eastern Orthodox Church
one of three major branches of Christianity, it along with the Roman Catholic Church, a second of the three major branches of Christianity, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions: broke away from Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
one of three major branches of Christianity, it along with the Eastern Orthodox Church, a second of the three major branches of Christianity, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions
Protestant
one of the three major branches of Chrisianity (together with the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church); adherents to the Roman Catholic Church began to question the role of religion in their lives and opened the door to the Protestant Reformation (challenge of many of the fundamental teachings of the Roman Catholic Church)
Islam
youngest of the major world religions, it is based on the teachings of Muhammad; Muhammad received the truth directly from Allah in a series of revelations during which Muhammad spoke the verses of Qu'ran (Koran), the holy book
Sunnis
adherents to the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalist; they believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems, and they differ from the Shi'ites in accepting the traditions (sunna) of Muhammad as authoritative
Shi'ite
an adherent of one of the two main divisions of Islam; also known as Shiahs, they represent the Persian (Iranian) variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of Imams, descendants of Ali
Indigenous religions
belief systems and philosophies practiced and traditionally passed from generation to generation among peoples within an indigenous tribe or group
Shamanism
community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman-a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary; most shamans remain local figures
Pilgrimage
voluntary travel by an adherent to a sacred site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site
Sacred sites
places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning
Minarets
towers attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer
Hajj
the muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad
Interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the world's major faiths
Intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
Ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
Activity space
the space within which daily activity occurs
Religious fundamentalism
religious movement whose obectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy
Religious extremism
religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence
Shari'a Law
the system of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu'ranic law; unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence; it is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu'ran
jihad
a doctrine within Islam; commonly translated as "Holy War,"; it represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards set by the Qu'ran
gender
social differences between men and women (not biological); notions of gender differences change over time and place
residential segregation
defined by geographers Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as the degree to which two or more groups live sepeately from one another, in different parts of an urban environment
place
uniqueness of location
identity
geographer Gillian Rose defines as "how we make sense of ourselves"; how people see themselves on different scales
succession
process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups
gendered
whether a place is designed for or claimed by men or women
identifying against
one of the most powerful ways to construct an identity; define the "other" and then define ourselves as "not the other"
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
queer theory
Theory defined by geographers Glen Elder, Lawrence Knopp, and Heidi Nast that highlights the contextual nature of opposition to the heteronormative and focuses on the poliitcal engagment of "queers" with the heteronormative
race
a political or socially constructed identity; perfect example of how identites are built geographically; based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others
ethnicity
affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by a common ancestry and culture
dowry deaths
disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, led to the death of the bride; in context of arrange marriages in India
racism
system or attitude toward visible differences in individuals, usually negative
space
defined by Doreen Massey and Pat Jess as "social relation stretched out"
barrioization
defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanis population in a given neighborhood; referring to "barrio", the Spanish word for neighborhood
Networks
an interconnected system of things or people
New international division of labor
transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
Newly industrializing country
countries in the transition stage between developing and developed countries; typically have rapidly growing economies
Northeast District (China)
one of the earlier regions to industrialize in China; centered on the region's coal and iron deposits near the city of Shenyang
Offshore
with reference to production, to outsource to a third party located outside of the country
Oligarchs (Japan)
industrial and military leaders that came to political power in Japan and modernized industries, organized armed forsces, and transfored education and transportation
Outsourcing
procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs
Pacific Rim
an economic and social region including the country's surrounding the Pacific Ocean, especially those in Asia
Participatory development
the notion that locals should be engaged in deciding what development means for them and how it should be achieved
Post-Fordist
a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced
Post-Industrial Society
economically dependent upon the production and distribution of services, information, and knowledge
Primary economic activities
economic activities in which natural resources are made available for use or further processing, including mining, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Primary Sector
portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface
Primary Industry
uses natural resources or raw materials; provides raw material to use for other things
Secondary Industry
manufacturing businesses that take materials from primary industries and other secondary industries and make them into goods
Proven reserve
amount of a resource available in discovered deposits
Potential reserve
amount of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
Quarternary sector
service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital
W.W. Rostow
in 1960, proposed a widely cited model for economic advancement; theorized that all developing economies may pass through five successive stages of growth and advancement
Rostow's Stages
1) Traditional- farming, 2) Preconditions for Takeoff- commercial exploitations of materials, 3) Take off- massive investment and produce goods for manufacturing, 4) Drive to Maturity- wealth goes up, 5) Age of Mass Consumption
Secondary economic activities
economic activities concerned with the processing of raw materials such as manufacturing, construction, and power generation
Secondary sector
portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
Secondary Industrial Region
regions that consist of one or more core areas of industrial development with subsidiary cluster some distance away
Single market manufacturers
manufacturers that produce goods for one type of market or one market location
Site factors
location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital
Social development
the maturation of skills or abilities that enable people to live in a world with other people
Space-time Compression
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Special Economic Zones
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
Sunbelt
southern and southwestern states, from the Carolinas to California, characterized by warm climate and recently, rapid population growth
Substitution Principle
in industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location
Sustainable development
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Synergy
cross promotion of vertically integrated goods
Tertiary sector
part of economy which consists of service-oriented occupations
Technopole
centers or nodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high-technology corridor is sometimes established
Trading blocs
group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
Transnational corporations
large corporations that are headquartered in one country but sell and produce goods and services in many countries
Value added productivity
extra money added to a product for laboring cost
Variable revenue analysis
a firm's ability to capture a market that will earn it more customers and money than its competitors
Vertical integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
Washington Consensus
the view that Global South countries can best achieve sustained economic growth through democratic governance, fiscal discipline, free markets, a reliance on private enterprise, and trade liberalization
Emanuel Wallerstein
first explained economic development in 1974 using model of the capitalist world economy
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Alfred Weber
German geographer who devised a model of how to understand industrial locations in regard to several factors, including transportation, labor, and agglomeration
Acid Rain
rain containing high amounts of chemical pollutants
Agglomeration
process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities; term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities
Break-of-Bulk
refers to the transfer of transported cargo from one kind of carrier to another (ex: boat to train)
Bulk-Reducing Industries
industries whose final products weigh less than their constituent parts, and whose processing facilities tend to be located close to sources of raw materials
Bulk-Gaining Industries
industries whose products weigh more after assembly than they did previously in their constituent parts; tend to have production facilities close to their markets
Capitalist World Economy
a single world system committed to production for sale or exchange, with the object of maximizing profits, rather than supplying domestic needs
Compressed Modernity
rapid economic and political change that transforms a country into a stable nation
Conglomerate Corporations
companies that have diversified into various economic activities usually through a process of mergers and acquisitions
Deglomeration
dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration
Deindustrialization
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
Dependency Theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
Distance Decay
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
Economic Development
improvement of living standards by economic growth
Economic Geography
field of geography that focuses on the diverse ways in which people earn a living, and how the goods and services they produce are expressed and organized spatially
Export-Oriented Industrialization
mercantilist strategy for economic growth in which a country seeks out technologies and develops industries focused specifically on the export market
Footloose Industry
industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms
Friction of Distance
increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
Fossil Fuels
coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals
Gatekeepers
media executives, news editors, & prominent reporters who decide what news to present & how it will be presented
Globalization
actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scale
Global Warming
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
GDP
total dollar value of all final goods and services produced in a country during a single year
GDP per capita
an approximation of the value of goods produced per person in the country, equal to the country's GDP divided by the total number of people in the country.
Greenhouse Effect
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Horizontal Integration
type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Industrialization
the development of industries for the machine production of goods
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850
Infrastructure
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
International Division of Labor
system of labor whereby products are produced globally, while profits accrue only to a few.
Intermodal Connections
places where two or more modes of transportation meet (including air, road, rail, barge, and ship)
Just-in-Time Delivery
method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed
Kanto Plain
largest lowland of Japan, dominant region of industrialization, including Tokyo metropolitan area
Labor Intensive Industries
an industry for which labor costs comprises a high percentage of total expenses
Least Cost Theory
model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
Local Exchange Trading System (LETS)
a barter system whereby a local currency is created through which members trade service or goods in a local network separated from the formal economy
Location Theory
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
Locational Interdependence Theory
Harold Hotelling; industry will locate close to competition to constrain selling area and customers will go to the place with better service
Maquiladora district
factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico
Meiji Restoration
political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism
Modernization Model
model of economic development maintains that all countries go through five stages of development
More developed country
(MDC) also known as a relatively developed country, a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
Less developed country
also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries
Absolute Location
position on Earth's surface using the coordinate system of longitude (that runs from North to South Pole) and latitude (that runs parallel to the equator).
Cartography
art and science of making maps (including data compilation, layout, and design); concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns
Circular pattern
locations are clustered and concentrated around a particular place
Cultural Landscapes
cultural attributes of an area often used to describe a place (e.g., buildings, theaters, places of worship)
Daylight Savings Time
the changing if clocks to one hour ahead during the spring to take advantage of daylight
Distortion
a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map
Environmental Geography
intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa
Equator
an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
Eratosthenes
one of the first cartographers; performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference; credited with coining the term "geography"
Formal Region
a type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region
Functional Region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Geographic Information System (GIS)
collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user
Globalization
expansion of economics, political and cultural processes to the point that they beome global in scale and impact
Greenwich Mean Time
local time at the 0 meridian passing through Greenwich, England
Global Positioning System (GPS)
satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geograpic features
Grid Pattern
intersecting lines of longitude and latitude that determine absolute location on a map
Hecataeus
Greek historian; wrote book on geography based on his travels; took Anaximander's map and wrote about countries and inhabitants of the unknown world
Human Geography
one of the two major divisions of Geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes
Idrisi
11th century Arab geographer that worked for the king of Sicily; collected geographical information into a remarkably accurate representation of the world
Immanuel Kant
greatest German philosopher of Enlightenment-separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge-science could describe nature, it could not provide a guide for morality
Landscapes
overall appearance of an area that is shaped by both human and natural influences
Latitude
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator used to measure distances north and south of the equator
Longitude
an imaginary line circling the earth and passing through the north and south poles; used to measure distances west and east of the Prime Meridian
George Perkins Marsh
inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar; his classic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, provided first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions
Mercator Projection
a mathematical method of showing a map of the globe on a flat suface with the use of a cone; all of the lines of longitude are parallel, distorting the projections of the actual size
Meridian
one of many lines on the global grid running from the North Pole to the South Pole; used to measure degrees of longitude
Multi-National Corporation
organization that manufactures and markets products in many different countries and has multinational stock ownership and multinational management
Parallel
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator; lines of latitude
Pattern
design of spatial distribution (ex. scattered or concentrated)
Perceptual (Vernacular) Regions
no formal boundries/ an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity ex: "The South"
Periphery
processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes in the world-economy
Peters Projection
a cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses
Place
fourth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; uniqueness of a location
Physical Geography
one of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography
Physical Site Characteristic
area, shape, soil and ground conditions, typography, and access to the site
Prime Meridian
imaginary north-south line of longitude passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0° line of longitude
Ptolemy
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of Guide to Geography which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude; said earth was the center of the universe
Random Pattern
a type of dispersion where individuals in a population are spaced in a patternless, unpredictable way
Regionalization
the process by which specific regions acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country
Robinson Projection
a type of compromise projection; shows the entire earth with nearly the true sizes and shapes of the continents and oceans; however, the shapes of the landforms near the poles appear flat
Carl Sauer
geographer from the University of California at Bed defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental un graphical analysis; landscape results from interaction between and the physical environment; argued that virtually no land escaped alteration by human activities
Scale
representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction of generalization
Site
internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting
Situation
a place's relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places
Solar Time
method used before the adoption of time zones based on the position of the sun in the sky as the day progressed
Space
defined by Doreen Massey and Pat Jess as "social relations stretched out"
Space Time Compression
reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Spatial Organization
a pattern of organization that views an object, scene, or person by paralleling the way we normally scan things - for instance, top to bottom or near to far
Spatial Perspective
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
Time Zone
any of the 24 regions (15 degrees wide) of the globe (loosely divided by longitude) throughout which the same standard time is used
Toponym
name by which a geographical place is known
U.S. Census Bureau
government program that surveys the population every ten years in order to aid official plans and fund certain programs
"why of where"
where something is? why is it there?; the idea that the explanation of a spatial pattern is crucial