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Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 38

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amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
epiglottis
flap of connective tissue that closes over the opening to the trachea which prevents food from blocking the air passageways to the lungs
esophagus
food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
peristalsis
rhythmic muscle contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach
stomach
large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
chyme
mixture of stomach fluids and food produced in the stomach by contracting stomach muscles
small intestine
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
pancreas
gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
liver
organ just above the stomach that produces bile
villus
folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine
large intestine
colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
kidney
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood
ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
nephron
blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney
filtration
process by which a liquid or gas passes through a filter to remove wastes
glomerulus
small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where filtration takes place
Bowman's capsule
cup-shaped structure in the upper end of a nephron that encases the glomerulus
reabsorption
process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel
loop of Henle
section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
urethra
tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body