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enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches


flap of connective tissue that closes over the opening to the trachea which prevents food from blocking the air passageways to the lungs


food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach


rhythmic muscle contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach


large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food


mixture of stomach fluids and food produced in the stomach by contracting stomach muscles

small intestine

digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place


gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid


organ just above the stomach that produces bile


folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine

large intestine

colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it


organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood


tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted


blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney


process by which a liquid or gas passes through a filter to remove wastes


small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where filtration takes place

Bowman's capsule

cup-shaped structure in the upper end of a nephron that encases the glomerulus


process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel

loop of Henle

section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine


tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body

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