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Most people misrecall the sentence "The angry rioter threw the rock at the window" as "The angry rioter threw the rock through thr window" This best illustrates the importance of

Semantic encoding

The threadlike structures that contain genes are called


Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?


Japanese students are more likely than American students to describe themselves in terms of their

social identities

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between two variables?


Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Shultz didn't perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates

the cocktail party effect

The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called


Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are indicative of

physical dependence

After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3 year old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a white dress. His reactions best illustrates


A need refers to

a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal

Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from

psychological processes

Mr. and Mrs. Batson can't wait to potty train their one year old daughter. The Batsons most clearly need to be informed of the importance of


The somatic nervous system is a component of the ___________ nervous system


Erik Erikson suggested that children with secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience

basic trust

A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a ________ perceptive


After Terry lost a finger in an industrial accident, the area of his sensory cortex devoted to receiving input from that finger gradually became very responsive to sensory input from his adjacent fingers. This best illustrates


Resting potential is to action potential as _______ is to ________

polarization; depolarization

Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the


According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conversation as the _______ stage is to the _______ stage.

pre operational; concrete operational

The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the

Cannon Bard Theory

Spearman's g factor refers to

a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks.

The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal and unconditioned stimulus is called


10 year old Vito tells his friend, "When you notice that your knees knock, your hands sweat, and your stomach is in knots, then you get really scared" This statement best illustrates

James Lange Theory

Robert Stenburg distinguished among analytical, practical, and ______ intelligence.


The movement of + charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce an

action potential

A Skinner box is

chamber containing a bar or key than an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward

Most experts view intelligence as a person's

ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations

Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by _______ needs.


Individualism is to collectivism as __________ is to __________

independence; interdependence

Willhelm Wundt's lab work involved experimental studies of

reactions to sensory stimulation

Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that her inconsistency illustrates

role confusion

Just prior to awakening China from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. His therapist was attempting to make use of

posthypnotic suggestion

John B. Watson considered himself a


The person most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was


Automatic processing and effortful processing involves two types of


Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. the two children most clearly differ in


The components of creativity include

expertise and venturesome personality.

An exhausted forest ranger may notice the faintest scent of a forest fire, whereas much stronger but less important odors fail to catch her attention. This fact would be of greatest relevance to

signal detection theory

Lewis Terman's widely used American revision of the Binet's original intelligence test was the

Stanford- Binet

The sequential occurrence of two highly unusual events is most likely to contribute to

an illusory correlation

Which perspective is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?

behavior genetics

In recognizing the inaccuracies of one's own ethnic stereotypes and revising his or her own beliefs, an individual most clearly illustrates the process of


In classical conditioning, the ____ signals the impending occurrence of the ________


Mark usually responds to stress in a calm and thoughtful manner. Chandler usually becomes agitated. This shows that the two of distinctive ______


When Mr. Adams calculated his test scores, he noticed 2 students had really low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the score of these two students?


6 different high school students spent 10, 13, 2, 12, 13, and 4 dollars. What is the mode


After listening to your high volume car stereo for 15 min, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates

sensory adaptation

When Joan touched her infants cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting the

rooting reflex

Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing car nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. His emotional volatility best illustrates

spillover effect

The 19th century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called


The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are cold

delta waves

The King James version of the Bible was completed when Shakespeare was 46. In Psalm 46 of this translation, the 46th word is "shake", and the 46th word from the end is "spear". Before concluding that the biblical translators were trying to be humorous with these specific word placements, you would best be advised to recognize the danger of

perceiving order in coincidental events

Chunking refers to

the organization of info into meaningful units

Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?

positive reinforces increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding

The process of encoding refers to

getting info into memory

Your ability to experience the physical pleasure of a hot shower is most likely to be disrupted by damage to your


The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was


Primary sex characteristics are to _________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________

female ovaries; deepened male voice

The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical, mental, and social changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called

developmental psychology

The organizational principles identified by Gestalt psychologists best illustrate the importance of

top-down processing

Psychologists have used 4 perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and

drive reduction

Nikki has learned to except the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lighting. This suggest that associative learning involves

cognitive processes

Who emphasized that the whole may exceed the sum of its parts

Gestalt psychologist

In transmitting sensory info to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the _________ of a single neuron

dendrites, to the cell body, to axon

Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the info they received best illustrates the power or

the hindsight bias

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

behavior and mental processes

The most crucial ingredient in all learning is


Info is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other buy the

corpus callosum

The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to


According to Maslow, our need for

adequate clothing must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for self-esteem

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called


Bandura's experiments indicate ______ is important in the process of learning.


The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neurons to another are called


Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry... afraid because we tremble"?

William James

Which of the following is true of negative reinforcement and punishment?

negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease the rate of operant responding

The first time 4 year old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Her initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of


The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ______ memory


If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, you adrenal glands would probably release _______ into your bloodstream.


Correlational research is most useful for purposes of


Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her babysitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held, Alicia most clearly shows signs of

secure attachment

A behavior geneticist would most be interested in studying hereditary influences on

personality traits

Socrates, Plato, and Descartes believed that

mind an body are distinct and separable

THC, the active ingredient in ____________, is classified as a ________

marijuana; hallucinogen

Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commerical bus driver?


According to Freud, the unconscious is

the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware of.

Drug tolerance refers to

reduced effect resulting from its regular usage

By creating a label such as "gifted" we begin to act as if all kids are naturally divided into 2 categories, gifts and nongifted. This logical error is referred to as


Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of


Slender women are considered beautiful in one country; in another country, stout women are seen as attractive. In both countries, however, women perceived as very beautiful receive preferential treatment. This best illustrates that ___________ often underlie cultural differences.

common psychological processes

Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of

natural selection

Which philosopher would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism?


Displacement refers to the process by which people

redirect aggressive or sexual impulses toward less threatening targets

Identical twins are most likely to share a similar prenatal environment if they share the same


Long-term potentiation refers to

an increase in a neuron's firing potential

Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by

biological predispositions

By 1960 the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists renewed interest in

mental processes

Kinesthesis refers to the

system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.

A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a


Habituation refers to the

decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed

Intelligence tests were initially designed by Binet and Simon to asses

academic aptitude

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