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AP Psychology Exam

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Most people misrecall the sentence "The angry rioter threw the rock at the window" as "The angry rioter threw the rock through thr window" This best illustrates the importance of
Semantic encoding
The threadlike structures that contain genes are called
chromosomes
Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?
Ebbinghaus
Japanese students are more likely than American students to describe themselves in terms of their
social identities
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between two variables?
-0.67
Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Shultz didn't perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates
the cocktail party effect
The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called
sensation
Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are indicative of
physical dependence
After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3 year old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a white dress. His reactions best illustrates
generalization
A need refers to
a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal
Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from
psychological processes
Mr. and Mrs. Batson can't wait to potty train their one year old daughter. The Batsons most clearly need to be informed of the importance of
maturation
The somatic nervous system is a component of the ___________ nervous system
peripheral
Erik Erikson suggested that children with secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience
basic trust
A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a ________ perceptive
psychodynamic
After Terry lost a finger in an industrial accident, the area of his sensory cortex devoted to receiving input from that finger gradually became very responsive to sensory input from his adjacent fingers. This best illustrates
plasticity
Resting potential is to action potential as _______ is to ________
polarization; depolarization
Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the
amygdala
According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conversation as the _______ stage is to the _______ stage.
pre operational; concrete operational
The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the
Cannon Bard Theory
Spearman's g factor refers to
a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks.
The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal and unconditioned stimulus is called
discrimination
10 year old Vito tells his friend, "When you notice that your knees knock, your hands sweat, and your stomach is in knots, then you get really scared" This statement best illustrates
James Lange Theory
Robert Stenburg distinguished among analytical, practical, and ______ intelligence.
creative
The movement of + charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce an
action potential
A Skinner box is
chamber containing a bar or key than an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward
Most experts view intelligence as a person's
ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations
Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by _______ needs.
belongingness
Individualism is to collectivism as __________ is to __________
independence; interdependence
Willhelm Wundt's lab work involved experimental studies of
reactions to sensory stimulation
Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that her inconsistency illustrates
role confusion
Just prior to awakening China from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. His therapist was attempting to make use of
posthypnotic suggestion
John B. Watson considered himself a
behaviorist
The person most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was
Skinner
Automatic processing and effortful processing involves two types of
encoding
Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. the two children most clearly differ in
temperament
The components of creativity include
expertise and venturesome personality.
An exhausted forest ranger may notice the faintest scent of a forest fire, whereas much stronger but less important odors fail to catch her attention. This fact would be of greatest relevance to
signal detection theory
Lewis Terman's widely used American revision of the Binet's original intelligence test was the
Stanford- Binet
The sequential occurrence of two highly unusual events is most likely to contribute to
an illusory correlation
Which perspective is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?
behavior genetics
In recognizing the inaccuracies of one's own ethnic stereotypes and revising his or her own beliefs, an individual most clearly illustrates the process of
accommodation
In classical conditioning, the ____ signals the impending occurrence of the ________
CS; US
Mark usually responds to stress in a calm and thoughtful manner. Chandler usually becomes agitated. This shows that the two of distinctive ______
personality
When Mr. Adams calculated his test scores, he noticed 2 students had really low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the score of these two students?
mean
6 different high school students spent 10, 13, 2, 12, 13, and 4 dollars. What is the mode
$13
After listening to your high volume car stereo for 15 min, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates
sensory adaptation
When Joan touched her infants cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting the
rooting reflex
Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing car nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. His emotional volatility best illustrates
spillover effect
The 19th century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called
phrenology
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are cold
delta waves
The King James version of the Bible was completed when Shakespeare was 46. In Psalm 46 of this translation, the 46th word is "shake", and the 46th word from the end is "spear". Before concluding that the biblical translators were trying to be humorous with these specific word placements, you would best be advised to recognize the danger of
perceiving order in coincidental events
Chunking refers to
the organization of info into meaningful units
Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?
positive reinforces increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding
The process of encoding refers to
getting info into memory
Your ability to experience the physical pleasure of a hot shower is most likely to be disrupted by damage to your
thalamus
The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was
behaviorism
Primary sex characteristics are to _________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________
female ovaries; deepened male voice
The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical, mental, and social changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called
developmental psychology
The organizational principles identified by Gestalt psychologists best illustrate the importance of
top-down processing
Psychologists have used 4 perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and
drive reduction
Nikki has learned to except the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lighting. This suggest that associative learning involves
cognitive processes
Who emphasized that the whole may exceed the sum of its parts
Gestalt psychologist
In transmitting sensory info to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the _________ of a single neuron
dendrites, to the cell body, to axon
Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the info they received best illustrates the power or
the hindsight bias
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
behavior and mental processes
The most crucial ingredient in all learning is
experience
Info is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other buy the
corpus callosum
The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to
interneurons
According to Maslow, our need for
adequate clothing must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for self-esteem
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
neurotransmitters
Bandura's experiments indicate ______ is important in the process of learning.
modeling
The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neurons to another are called
synapses
Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry... afraid because we tremble"?
William James
Which of the following is true of negative reinforcement and punishment?
negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease the rate of operant responding
The first time 4 year old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Her initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of
assimilation
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ______ memory
long-term
If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, you adrenal glands would probably release _______ into your bloodstream.
epinephrine
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
prediction
Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her babysitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held, Alicia most clearly shows signs of
secure attachment
A behavior geneticist would most be interested in studying hereditary influences on
personality traits
Socrates, Plato, and Descartes believed that
mind an body are distinct and separable
THC, the active ingredient in ____________, is classified as a ________
marijuana; hallucinogen
Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commerical bus driver?
narcolepsy
According to Freud, the unconscious is
the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware of.
Drug tolerance refers to
reduced effect resulting from its regular usage
By creating a label such as "gifted" we begin to act as if all kids are naturally divided into 2 categories, gifts and nongifted. This logical error is referred to as
reification
Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of
cognitive
Slender women are considered beautiful in one country; in another country, stout women are seen as attractive. In both countries, however, women perceived as very beautiful receive preferential treatment. This best illustrates that ___________ often underlie cultural differences.
common psychological processes
Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
natural selection
Which philosopher would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism?
Aristotle
Displacement refers to the process by which people
redirect aggressive or sexual impulses toward less threatening targets
Identical twins are most likely to share a similar prenatal environment if they share the same
placenta
Long-term potentiation refers to
an increase in a neuron's firing potential
Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
biological predispositions
By 1960 the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists renewed interest in
mental processes
Kinesthesis refers to the
system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.
A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a
gene
Habituation refers to the
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed
Intelligence tests were initially designed by Binet and Simon to asses
academic aptitude