Honors Bio Chapter 14: How Biological Diversity Evolves
Terms in this set (38)
The process in which one species splits into two or more species
The biological species concept
Defines a species as "a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring"
The biological species concept cannot be applied in all situation, including:
Some other definitions of species are based on:
-measured physical traits
-the use of ecological resources
-unique adaptations to particular roles in a biological community
Pre zygotic barriers prevent mating or fertilization between species:
-temporal isolation (time of mating)
-gametic isolation (gametes do not fuse)
Post zygotic barriers operate if...
interspecies mating occurs or hybrid zygotes form
Post zygotic barriers include:
-reduced hybrid viability and fertility
-hybrid breakdown (sterile)
What is a key event that occurs that effects the potential origin of a species?
When a population is somehow cut off from other populations of the parent species
How can species form?
By geographic isolation or without geographic isolation
What are the two contrasting patterns for the pace of evolution?
Gradual pattern and punctuated equilibria pattern
Big changes (specifications) occur by the steady accumulation of many small changes
Punctuated equilibria pattern
There are long periods of little apparent change (equilibria) interrupted (punctuated) by relatively brief periods of rapid change
Evolutionary developmental biology, is the study of the evolution of developmental processes in multicellular organisms
Homeotic genes are master controls genes that regulate:
the rate, timing, and spatial pattern of changes in an organism's form as it develops from a zygote into an adult
What can mutations in homeotic genes do?
They can profoundly affect body form
Large scale changes, results in new species or new groups of species
A change in a population's gene pool over successive generations
What is macroevolution closely tied to?
The history of Earth
Time fossil record is:
the sequence in which fossils appear in the rock strata and its an archive of macroevolution
Systematics focuses on:
-determining their evolutionary relationships
Taxonomy is the:
Identification, naming, and classification of species
What does systematics include?
Carols Linnaeus (1707-1778) proposed the current taxonomic system based upon a
-Two-part name for each species
-Hierarchical classification of species into broader groups of organisms
The scientific name for humans is _____ ______
The taxonomic hierarchy extends to progressively broader categories of classification, from genus to
Biologists use phylogenetic trees to:
-Depict hypotheses about the evolutionary history of species
-Reflect the hierarchical classification of groups nested within more inclusive groups
-Reflect variations of a common ancestral plan
-One of the best sources of information used to develop phylogenetic trees and classify organisms according to their evolutionary history
The evolution of similar features in different lineages
-Can result from living in similar environments
What is similarity due to convergence called?
The similarity between two species due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait
Analogous structure example:
Insect wing and a bird's wing
organisms are grouped by common ancestry
Who divided all known forms of life and how?
Linnaeus did by plant and animal kingdoms
This _______ system prevailed in biology for over 2000 years
In the mid-1900s, the two-kingdom system was replaced by a _____
What was the set up of the five-kingdom system?
-Placed all prokaryotes in one kingdom
-Divided the eukaryotes among four other kingdoms
In the late 1900s, molecular studies and cladistics led to the development of a _______
What did the three-domain system recognize?
-Two domains of prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea)
-One domain of eukaryotes (Eukarya)