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similar to an ileostomy, a surgical opening in the wall of the abdomen with a bag in place to collect excretions from the digestive system.


the grating sound or feeling of broken bones rubbing together; also called crepitus.


a memory aid to remember deformities, contusions, abrasions, punctures/penetrations, burns, tenderness, lacerations, and swelling—symptoms of injury found by inspection or palpation during patient assessment.

detailed physical exam

an assessment of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and posterior of the body to detect signs and symptoms of injury. It differs from the rapid trauma assessment only in that it also includes examination of the head includes detailed examination of the face, ears, eyes, nose, and mouth. It may be done en route to the hospital after earlier on-scene assessments and interventions are completed.


a condition of being stretched, inflated, or larger than normal.

focused history and physical exam

the step of patient assessment that follows the initial assessment.


See colostomy.

jugular vein distention (JVD)

bulging of the neck veins.

paradoxical motion

movement of a section of ribs that is opposite to the direction of movement of the rest of the chest during respiration.


persistent erection of the penis that may result from spinal injury and some medical problems.

rapid trauma assessment

a rapid assessment of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and posterior of the body to detect signs and symptoms of injury.


a permanent surgical opening in the neck through which the patient breathes; a surgically created opening into the body, as with a tracheostomy, colonostomy, or ileostomy.


a surgical incision held open by a metal or plastic tube.

Trauma Patient

a patient suffering from one or more physical injuries

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