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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Enlightenment and scientific revolution
Terms in this set (15)
A revolution of thought that occurred in Europe during the 18th century
An agreement created by Hobbes where people create their own government
French thinkers who criticized the government during the enlightenment in Europe
A gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Europe during the enlightenment
A collection of writings from philosophers during the enlightenment, created by Diderot
One of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by the enlightenment to rule justly and respect the rights of their subjects
Describe the political philosophies of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes believed that people were naturally wicked and selfish, and believed in a strong government. John Locke believed that people were naturally good and could improve themselves, and believed in a looser government where people were being provided with life, liberty, and property.
Define the term "Enlightenment" and explain the different political philosophies of the time. Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rosseau, Beccaria, and Wollstonecraft
Enlightenment was a time in Europe where people began to question and believe different things about their government and other things. Montesquieu believed in strong centralized government and separation of powers, Voltaire believed in freedom of speech and religion, Rousseau believed in free government/very little government, Beccaria believed in a fair social justice system, and Wollstonecraft believed in gender equality and rights for both sexes.
Describe the impact of the enlightenment on the western world in the 18th century.
People started to look to themselves instead of the church or their monarch, and also people began to have a more secular outlook on the world. In addition, the way that people critiqued the government lead people to start questioning accepted beliefs, and laid the groundwork for what would become the scientific method.
A major change in European thought, brought on by scientific discoveries that were based on people questioning accepted scientific practices and beliefs
A theory of the universe created by Copernicus that had the sun at the center, instead of the earth.
A logical progression of thought used in many different scientific practices, brought on by the thinking used during the scientific revolution in Europe. Based on the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo.
Identify the roots of modern science
Modern science is based on the questioning of accepted beliefs, and using reason and thought to come to logical conclusions about what they believe. This way of thinking began during the enlightenment, when scientists like Copernicus began to question theories, such as the church's theory of the universe with the earth at its center. In addition, scientists like Kepler and Galileo formed new theories about the formation of the universe, and refused to believe the already accepted beliefs. Modern science is based on these revolutionary thoughts.
Explain the role of Bacon and Descartes in developing the scientific method that characterized the scientific revolution
Bacon published articles that attacked other scientists for relying too heavily on the beliefs of others to form their conclusions. He encouraged scientists to come to their own conclusions and not to rely on others. Descartes made important discoveries linking algebra and geometry, and used reason and logic when coming to conclusions, which is an important part of the scientific method. The modern scientific method is based on the thinking processes of these two scientists.
Describe the development and importance of astronomy, physics, technology, medicine, and chemistry as a result of the scientific revolution
Astronomy- heliocentric theory of the universe by Copernicus
Physics- Newton's theory of universal gravitation
Medicine- Vesalius cut people open
Chemistry- Boyle creates the idea that everything is made of small particles
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