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"We [Americans] will walk on our own feet; We will work with our won hands; We will speak our own minds." - Ralph Waldo Emerson, "The American Scholar," 1837


The act of marrying multiple spouses.


People of South Carolina favoring nullification.

Burned-Over District

New England areas overcome with sermonizers.


Religious leaders exercising direct political authority.

Second Great Awakening

19th Century ferment of reform, culture.


Unrealistic society, pursues ideal social order.


Productions are owned by whole community.


Superiority of community over individual life.

Free Love

Sexual relations without law, marriage, religion.


Improving human species by selective breeding.


Culture of ancient Greece and Rome.


Belief in God without human comprehension.


One refusing to follow established ideas.

American Temperance Society

American group working towards outlawing alcohol.


Under care and direction of God.

The Age of Reason

Novel declaring churches monopolized power, profit.

Walt Whitman

American poet, published Leaves of Grass.

Henry Melville

American author of novel, "Moby Dick"

Edgar Allen Poe

19th Century gothic poet and writer.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Author of Puritan, "The Scarlet Letter"

Common Sense

Thomas Paine's 19th Century religious pamphlet.


Religious sect stressing simplicity, everyday life.

Public Education

Established by tax dollars expanding education.

Scientific Revolution

The intellectual, scientific movement in Europe.

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