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Chapter 15: The Ferment of Reform and Culture

"We [Americans] will walk on our own feet; We will work with our won hands; We will speak our own minds." - Ralph Waldo Emerson, "The American Scholar," 1837
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Polygamy
The act of marrying multiple spouses.
nullies
People of South Carolina favoring nullification.
Burned-Over District
New England areas overcome with sermonizers.
Theocracy
Religious leaders exercising direct political authority.
Second Great Awakening
19th Century ferment of reform, culture.
Utopian
Unrealistic society, pursues ideal social order.
Communistic
Productions are owned by whole community.
Communitarian
Superiority of community over individual life.
Free Love
Sexual relations without law, marriage, religion.
Eugenic
Improving human species by selective breeding.
Classical
Culture of ancient Greece and Rome.
Mystical
Belief in God without human comprehension.
Nonconformist
One refusing to follow established ideas.
American Temperance Society
American group working towards outlawing alcohol.
Providential
Under care and direction of God.
The Age of Reason
Novel declaring churches monopolized power, profit.
Walt Whitman
American poet, published Leaves of Grass.
Henry Melville
American author of novel, "Moby Dick"
Edgar Allen Poe
19th Century gothic poet and writer.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Author of Puritan, "The Scarlet Letter"
Common Sense
Thomas Paine's 19th Century religious pamphlet.
Shakers
Religious sect stressing simplicity, everyday life.
Public Education
Established by tax dollars expanding education.
Scientific Revolution
The intellectual, scientific movement in Europe.