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40 terms

Physical Science Exam ch. 10

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static electricity
all electrical phenomena relating to stationary electrical charges and the forces they exert
electrostatic force
the field force exerted by ectrical charges
law of charges
law stating that like electrical charges repel and unlike charges attract
coulomb
the SI derived unit of electrical charge
line of force
imaginery lines used to model electric and magnetic fields
electrical induction
the creation of a charged region on a neutral object when exposed to a nearby electrical charge
dipole
an object or particle with two electrical or magnetic poles of opposite nature
electroscope
an instrument that can detect electrical charge
electrical conductor
a material through which heat and electricity easily flow
electrical insulator
a material that does not easily conduct thermal energy or electricity
semiconductor
a material that allows limited electron flow, so it can act as either a conductor or a insulator depending on the circumstances
electrical discharge
the loss of static charge on an object as the surroundings supply or absorb charges to restore a nuetral condition on the object
lightning rod
a metal rod attatched to the highest point of a building that is designed to conduct a lightning discharge safely through cables to the ground
leyden jar
an early charge-storage device that consisted of a jar lined and coated with lead and used electrical induction and grounding to greatly increaseits storage capacity
capacitor
a modern charge-storage device used in electrical and electronic circuits, consisting of two or more conductive plates or sheets separated by an insulator
electrical current
a continuous flow of electrical charges
cathode-ray tube
a hollow, vacuumed filled and sealed glass device containing electrical plates with opposite chargesat high voltages
electrical potential energy
the energy or work that can be done by charges moving between two points of different voltages
conventional current
the flow of positive charges through a conductor or electrolytic solution. opposite to the flow of electrons in a wire
direct current
electrical current that flows in only one direction
electrical circuit
a complete path for an electrical current. it includes a current source, such as a battery or a generator
electrical load
any device that purposely converts electrical energy to another form of energy in an electrical circuit
switch
a device that opens or closes a gap in an electrical circuit to control the flow of current
battery
a source of electrical potential consisting of one or more voltaic cells connected in a series
electrochemical cell
a device that creates an electrical potential by either releasing or absorbing electrons or both through chemical reaction(s)
volt
the amount of work required to move a unit charge between two points in a circuit or field
ampere
th SI base unit of electrical current, often defined as 1 A=1 C/s for practical purposes
electrical resistance
The property of all electrical circuit elements that impedes the flow of current to some extent. Also measured in ohmes
resistor
an electrical circuit component whose specific purpose is to impede current flow or to create a potential difference between two points in the circuit
Ohm's law
law stating that in a DC-circuit component of resistance R, the current (I) through the component is directly proportional to the potential difference applied to the component
Ohm
The SI derived unit of electrical resistance
Kilowatt-hour
the unit electrical energy used by utilities to sell electricity
series circuit
an electrical circuit or portion of a circuit with a single path of current flow through a connected set of electrical components
parallel circuit
an electrical circuit or portion of a circuit with multiple parallel paths so that the current must split up to flow through each load in a circuit
short circuit
a location in an electrical circuit where current bypasses a circuit's load to take a low-resistance path back to the current's source
overccurrent protection
an electrical device designed to open the circuit and stop the current when a high-current situation exists due to a fault in the circuit
circuit breaker
a reusable overcurrent protection device that opens a switch when current exceeds a certain value
arc-fault circuit interrupter
a reusable overcurrent protection device that opens a switch when the pulsing, high-current conditions associated with arcing are detected
fuse
a one-time use overcurrent protection device that breaks a circuit when its conductor strip melts due to the current becoming to high
ground-fault circuit interrupter
an eletrical device that instantly opens the circuit when it senses that an abnormal path for the current to ground exists