Chapter 1: Psychology, Critical Thinking and Science
Terms in this set (38)
mind and knowledge or study
The word psychology comes from the roots psyche and logos, which mean respectively_____
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Psychology would best be described as________
remembering a pleasant experience
What best describe covert behavior
Behavior that can be subjectively perceived only by the person performing the behavior. Thoughts and feelings are covert behaviors.
gathering of empirical evidence.
Scientific observation is based on the________.
Psychology is different from the fields of history, law, and business because psychology relies on____________.
a systematic process for answering scientific questions.
the goals of psychology are to
describe, understand, predict, and control behavior.
- people were less likely to intervene during an emergency in the presence of others than when alone
diffusion of responsibility
EXPLAINS the bystander effect/behavior. We don't feel the responsibility help
Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives
Research on "bystander apathy" reveals that people often fail to help when other possible helpers are nearby due to a "diffusion of responsibility." Explaining this perplexing problem meets which goal in psychology?
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments or conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Direct results of the evidence that currently supports them
any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
the tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague as to be worthless
The six steps of the scientific method include observation, defining a problem, proposing a hypothesis, testing they hypothesis, publishing the results, and
results of a study
The results of a study become more credible when other researches ____________.
make observations, perform experiments, and seek information
Psychology became a science in 1879 when psychologists began to______________.
Remembered as a German scientist who established THE FIRST psychology research laboratory. He pioneered a research method called introspection in which his subjects reported detailed descriptions of their own conscious mental experiences.
Austrian physician whose work focused on the UNCONSCIOUS causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.
John B. Watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats
A method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
used introspection to analyze conscious experience
The structuralist school of psychology
1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth
Famous for naming and describing the process of classical conditioning by training dogs to salivate to the sound of a ringing bell.
Which psychologist said, "give me a dozen healthy infants...and I 'll guarantee to take any one a t random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select..."?
learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus
Freud believed that abnormal behavior arises from unconscious conflicts during childhood that remain unresolved
humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
humanistic psychology; Contributions: founded client-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard,
founding father of STRUCTURALISM who developed method of introspection.
A Gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures.
A research technique in which a researcher observes the results of changing one or more marketing variables while keeping certain other variables constant under controlled conditions.
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation