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149 terms

Biology Semester Test

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Mountain Lion
common name for Felis Concolor
Fungi
molds, mildews, and yeasts belong to this kingdom
Fossils
method used to classify organisms
Organisms
identified using a dichotomous key
Linnaeus
person who classified organisms based on structural similarities
Class
what Phyla are divided into
Plant
kingdom that includes mosses and ferns
7
number of levels of classification
Genus
first name in the scientific name
Divisions
what the plant kingdom is divided into
Dichotomous Key
guide designed to identify organisms
Phylogenetic Tree
shows the evolutionary relationship among organisms
Binomial Nomenclature
system in which each organism receives a two part name
Taxonomy
branch of biology that classifies organisms
Biodiversity
variations in organisms
Animal
kingdom that includes sponges
Species
most specific level of classification
Prokaryotic
organism with no nuclues
Kingdom
most general category of the classification system
Autotroph
organisms that make their own food
sponges
example of the animal kingdom
algae
example of the protist kingdom
bacteria
example of the monera kingdom
mosses
example of the plant kingdom
molds
example of the fungi kingdom
heterotroph
organisms that don't make their own food
Nucleus
Prokaryotes do not have a
Transformation
process by which bacteria pick up and incorporate DNA from dead bacterial cells
Endospore
structure in some bacteria that are resistant to adverse environmental factors
Methanogens
archaebacteria that can be found in the intestnes of cows and produce methane
Gram Staining
tool used for classifying bacteria
Lyme Disease
bacterial infection transferred from the bite of a deer tick
Pneumonia
disease caused by a bacteria in a human
Conjugation
when two bacteria join and transfer DNA
Chemoautotrophs
bacteria that make their own food by a process other than photosyntheses
Capsule
protective layer in some bacteria that make it hard to kill
Flagellum
long whip like tail found in some bacteria
Pili
short hair like structures involved in reproduction
Binary Fission
type of asexual reproduction in bacteria
Bacillus
rod shaped bacteria
Aerobes
make food in the presence of oxygen
Anaerobes
can break down food in the absence of oxygen
Toxin
poison produced by some bacteria
Autotroph
can make their own food
Tetanus
can cause lockjaw that grows in deep puncture wounds
Respiration
due to this process bacteria are classied by being either an anaerobe or aerobe
Nutrition
due to this bacertia are classified as being either a heterotroph or an autotroph
Shape
due to this bacteria are classied as coccus, bacillus, or spirillum
Cell Wall Composition
bacteria are classied by whether it has this part and what it is made up of
Cold Sore Virus
example of a virus that goes thru the lysogenic cycle
Protein Coat
a virus is a particle that consists of a core of nucleic acid and a ___________
Filovirus
type of virus that has no distinct or uniform shape
Spikes
covering the envelopes of some viruses that allows them to attach to cells they infect
Antibodies
what vaccines help the body to produce to help fight off viruses
Retroviruses
virus that contain reverse transcriptase, RNA, and DNA
Genetic Engineering
using viruses to transfer genes from one host cell to another
Helical
type of virus in which the nucleic acid is coiled inside a long narrow capsid
Genetic Material
viruses contain ________
Viroid
single strand of pure RNA that causes plant diseases
Vaccine
contain a weakened or dead form of the virus
Prion
protein molecule that causes disease in animals
Capsid
protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid
Lysogenic Cycle
replication cycle that does not immediately kill the host
Provirus
viral DNA that becomes part of the host DNA
Lytic Cycle
replication cycle that results in immediate cell death
Host
organism that shelters and nourishes something
Envelope
an additional protective coating found in some viruses
Bacteriophage
viruses that infect only bacterial cells
Polyhedral Virus
have multifaced geometric appearance
Specificity
viruses that invade only a certain type of organism
Binal Virus
2 distinct parts; a polyhehdral capsid and a helical tail
Attachment
1st step where the virus attaches to the host cell at a special receptor site
Entry
2nd step where the enzyme is released to weaken the cell membrane and DNA or RNA is injected
Replication
3rd step where viral DNA inactivates cell DNA and takes over the cell
Assembly
4th step where viral parts are put together using all of the cell's energy
Release
5th step where the host cell breaks apart and the new viruses are released
Ascaris, Hookworm, Trichina
types of parasitic roundworms
Acoelmate
organism that has no coelom (body cavity)
Bilateral System
being able to cut into equal left and right halves, with sense organs on its posterior end
Coelomate
has a coelom (body cavity)
Cyst
young worm with protective covering found in the muscle of the host
Eyespot
detect light changes for planaria
Flame Cells
excretory system of planarians is composed primarily of bulblike structures called -------
Free Living
organisms that don't depend on another organism for a place to live
Fluke
flatworm that lives in the liver of sheep and can cause Schistosomiasis in humans
Ganglia
concentration of receptors and nerves at the anterior end
Hermaphrodite
organism that has both male and female parts
Intermediate Host
nourishment for larvae that is different from host of the adult
Parasitic
organism that depends on another organsim for a place to live
Parasite
obtain nourishment from another living organism
Planaria
type of organism that uses a pharynx to extend outside the body to suck in food
Platyhelminthes
Phylum of flatworms
Proglottid
tapeworm has its reproductive organs in these segments
Pseudocoelomate
organism that has a "false" body cavity
Reproductive System
proglottids of a tape worm have a complete __________
Roundworms
only worms in this section that have separate sexes, two openings in the digestive system, and a pseudocoelem, include Ascaris
Scolex
the knob shaped head of a parastitic tapeworm
Trichina Worms
uncooked or poorly cooked pork may contain these
Trichinosis
disease that can be contracted from eating undercooked pork
Turbellaria
planaria(flatworm) that has eyespots that detect light - belong to which class
Two
nematodes have a digestive system with ___ openings
Flatworms
have one opening in the digestive system, an acoelmate, is a hermaphrodite, include Planaria
Hookworm
larvae enter the body by boring thru the skin, usually the feet
Ascaris
enter humans in contaminated food or water and cause blockage in the intestines
Tapeworm
flat, ribbon like body with a knob shaped head
Lamprey
these fish are not good swimmers because they lack paired fins, bore holes in fish and lives off the body fluids
Endoskeleton
Traits that is shared by all vertebrates
Dorsal
fin that lies on top of the fish
Chew their food
most fish have movable jaws and teeth, but most do not __
Osteichthyes
bony fish that include lobe-finned, lung
Agnatha
lampreys belong to this class
Kidneys
an excretory organ of fish and other vertebrates
Endotherms
capable of maintaining a constant body temperature by converting food energy into heat
Ectothermic
fish's body temperature is regulated by external environment
Gills
in fish, the actual exchange of gasses takes place in the capillaries of the __
Detect Vibrations
keenest sense of a shark is thought to be its
Chondricthyes
fish that has movable jaws and a skeleton of cartilage belong to this class, include shark, skates, rays
Pelvic
structure in fish that is homologous to the hind leg of other vertebrates
Cephalization
having a well developed brain and sense organs in the skull
Ray-finned
fish that have fins that are soft or contain spines
Vertebrae
series of bones that surrounds the spinal cord
Olfactory
organ in the fish that detects smell
Caudal
another name for the tail fin
Operculum
gill covering that acts as protection
Lobe-finned
belong to class Osteichtheys, coelacanth
Swim Bladder
thin walled sac tht can inflate and deflate
Manta Ray
belong to Chondrichthyes class, predator and are 6 m across
Arthropda
"jointed feet"
chitin
exoskeletion
molting
shedding the exoskeleton
crustaceans
lobsters,crabs,crayfish,shrimp
cephalothorax
fused head and thorax
carapace
shield of chitin that protects the internal organs
antennae
used for sensory purposes
mandibles
JAW---------------LIKE APPENDAGES THAT CRUSH AND CHEW FOOD
maxillae
hold the food and pass it to the mouth
maxillipeds
for touch,taste,and handling the food
claws(chelipeds)
used for catching food and for defense
walking legs
used for movement
swimmerets
used for swimming and reproduction
telson
triangular shaped '' end '' of the crayfish
uropod
used for movement (backward swimming)
compound eyes
made up of a multiple lenses
1+1=
2
stomach
contain ''teeth'' to help crush the food
digestive gland
digests and absorbs the food
green gland
regulates the amount of salt and liguids in the blood
cope pods
smallest crustaceans
decapods
largest crustaceans