62 terms

AP Ch 3 & 4 - Development

STUDY
PLAY
Adolescence
The period of extending from the onset of puberty to early adulthood
Puberty
The period during which the reproductive system matures; it begins with an increase in the production of sex hormones, which signals the end of childhood
Secondary Sex Characteristics
The genetically determined physical features that differentiate the sexes but are not directly involved with reproduction
Imaginary Audience
A cognitive distortion experienced by adolescents, in which they see themselves as always "on stage" with an audience watching
Personal Fable
A cognitive distortion experienced by adolescents, in which they believe they are so special and unique that other people cannot understand them and risky behaviors will not harm them
Longitudinal Study
A research method that focuses on a specific group of individuals at different ages to examine changes that have occurred over time
Cross-sectional Studies
A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ
Gender Identity
A person's sense of being male or female
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that children and adolescents use gender as an organizing theme to classify and interpret their perceptions about the world and themselves
Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by an obstinate and willful refusal to eat, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of being fat
Androgynous
Having both stereotypically male and stereotypically female characteristics
Bulimia Nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating (and a fear of not being able to stop eating) followed by purging
Ageism
Prejudice against the elderly and the resulting discrimination against them
Dementia
Impairment of mental functioning and global cognitive abilities in otherwise alert individuals, causing memory loss and related symptoms and typically having a progressive nature
Alzheimer's Disease
A chronic and progressive disorder of the brain that is the most common cause of degeneration dementia
Thanatology
The study of the psychological and medical aspects of death and dying
menarche
first menstrual period
menopause
the cessation of the ability to reproduce
Developmental Psychology
The study of the lifelong, often age-related, processes of change in the physical, cognitive, moral, emotional, and social domains of functioning; such changes are rooted in biological mechanisms that are genetically controlled, as well as in social interactions
Zygote
A fertilized egg
Embryo
The prenatal organism from the 5th through the 49th day after conception
Fetus
The prenatal organism from the 8th week after conception until birth
Placenta
A mass of tissue that is attached to the wall f the uterus and connected to the developing fetus by the umbilical cord; it supplies nutrients and eliminates waste products
Teratogen
Substance that can produce developmental malformations (birth defects) during the prenatal period
Babinski reflex
Reflex in which a newborn fans out the toes when the sole of the foot is touched
Moro reflex
Reflex in which a newborn stretches out the arms and legs and cries in response to a loud noise or an abrupt change in the environment
Rooting reflex
Reflex that causes a newborn to turn the head toward a light touch on lips or cheek
Sucking reflex
Reflex that causes a newborn to make sucking motions when a finger or nipple if placed in the mouth
Grasping reflex
Reflex that causes a newborn to grasp vigorously any object touching the palm or fingers or placed in the hand
Critical Period
The time in to development of an organism when it is especially sensitive to certain environmental influences; outside of that period the same influences will have far less effect
Schema
In Piaget's view, a specific mental structure; an organized way of interacting with the environment and experiencing it- a generalization a child makes based on comparable occurrences of various actins, usually physical, motor actions
Assimilation
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
Accommodation
According to Piaget, the process by which existing mental structures and behaviors are modified to adapt to new experiences
Sensorimotor stage
The first of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development (covering roughly the first 2 years of life), during which the child develops some motor coordination skills and a memory for past events
Object permanence
The realization of infants that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight
Preoperational stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development (lasting from about age 2 to age 6 or 7), during which the child begins to represent the world symbolically
Egocentrism
Inability to perceive a situation or event except in relation to oneself; also know as self-centeredness
Decentration
Process of changing from a totally self-oriented point of view to one that recognizes other people's feelings, ideas, and viewpoints
Concrete operational stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development (lasting from approximately age 6 or 7 to age 11 or 12), during which the child develops the ability to understand constant factors in the environment, rules, and higher-order symbolic systems
Conservation
Ability to recognize that objects can e transformed in some way, visually or physically, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume
Formal operational stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development (beginning at about age 12), during which the individual can think hypothetically, can consider future possibilities, and can use deductive logic
Cross-sectional study
A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ on an important dimension
Theory of mind
An understanding of mental states such as feelings, desires, beliefs, and intentions and of the causal role they play in human behavior
Morality
A system of learned attitudes about social practices, institutions, and individual behavior used to evaluate situations and behavior as right or wrong, good or bad
Sex
The biologically based categories of male and female
Gender
A socially and culturally constructed set of distinctions between masculine and feminine sets of behaviors that is promoted and expected by society
Attachment
The strong emotional tie that a person feels toward special other persons in his or her life
Bonding
Special process of emotional attachment that may occur between parents and babies in the minutes and hours immediately after birth
Temperament
Early-emerging and long-lasting individual differences in disposition and in the intensity and especially the quality of emotional reactions
Gender stereotype
A fixed, overly simple, sometimes incorrect idea about traits, attitudes, and behaviors of males or females
cohort effect
observed group differences based on the era when people were born and grew up, exposing them to particular experiences that may affect the results of cross-sectional studies
prenatal development
period of development from conception until birth
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
group of abnormalities that occur in the babies of mothers who drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy
habituation
decreased responsiveness with repeated presentation of the same stimulus
schema
framework of basic ideas about people, objects and events based on past experience in long-term memory
zone of proximal development
the range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and the level at which a child can solve a problem with the assistance of adults or children with more skill
preconventional level of moral development
morality based on consequences to self
moral development
growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically
conventional level of moral development
morality based on fitting in to the norms of society
postconventional level of moral development
morality based on one's own individual moral principles (i.e., conscience)
authoritarian parenting
style of parenting marked by emotional coldness, imposing rules and expecting obedience
authoritative parenting
parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making
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