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100 terms

Class 6 Exam Review SPRING

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Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarchy by
taking away the Huguenots' political and military rights and executing conspirators
The Moguls in India were foreigners who were also
Muslims
The foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England was laid by the
Bill of Rights
What is absolutism?
a system of government in which a ruler holds total power
Shah Jahan had the _________ built in Agra in memory of his wife.
Taj Mahal
Elizabeth Tudor tried to
avoid war with France and Spain
The Thirty Years' War involved all the major European powers except which nation?
England
In the late thirteenth century, a new group of Turks under their leader Osman began to build power in
the northwest corner of Anatolian Peninsula
Seven percent of the total French population were
Huguenots
Under the leadership of _________, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople and gained dominance over the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula.
Mehmet II
The Civil War in England was a conflict between
the king and parliament
James I of ENgland strongly believed in
the divine right of kinds
Ottoman expansion in the early fourteenth century eventually led to their control over
the Bosporus and the Dardanelles
Peter the Great wanted to
westernize, or Europeanize, Russia
Recruited from the local Christian population in the Balkans, the janissaries were
converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan
the rump parliament was
what was left after cromwell purged the members who did not support him
the ottoman empire after the death of suleyman was hurt by
lack of training for officials, cost of constant wars, and rise of a privileged group
the hapsburg empire did
take control of hungary, croatia, and slavonia, lose their holy roman empire in germany, and remain a collection of territories
the bill of rights did
recognize parliament's right to make laws, recognize the right to jury trials, prevent monarchs from raising armies
what was the name of the group of ottoman religious advisers that administered the legal system and schools of education muslims?
ulema
philip ii of spain was known as the
most catholic king
the commissariat established by frederick william in prussia became
both a military and civil agency
when henry of navarre became henry iv, he
converted to catholicism
the ______ brought an era of unity to the subcontinent of india in the 1600s
moguls
_________ sought to increase the wealth and power of france by following the ideas of mercantilism
jean-baptiste colbert
the house of _______ ruled the southern french kingdom of navarre
bourbon
during the meetings of the imperial council, the sultan
sat behind a screen and privately indicated his desires to the grand vizier
local officials, known as _______, kept a portion of the taxes paid by the peasants in lieu of a salary
zamindars
what was the glorious revolution
the invasion of england by william of orange which overthrew james ii with almost no bloodshed
gunpowder empires were empires that
were formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions they conquered
babur's forces entered india through the
khyber pass
the british successes in india were achieved through the military genius of
sir robert clive
the _____ granted puritans, but not catholics, the right of public worship
toleration act of 1689
william and mary were offered the throne of england to
prevent succession by a catholic monarch
the romanov dynasty in russia was
chosen by the national assembly
the _________ were protestants in england who were inspired by calvinist ideas
puritans
the ottoman empire preferred to
administer their lands through local rulers and pashas
the hereditary nature of the position of sultan
led to struggles over succession between the sons of the sultan
james i of england believed in the divine right of kings, which is
the idea that kings received their power from god and are responsible only to god
what two elements aided akbar in gaining control of almost all of india
heavy artillery and successful negotiators
the french kings of the sixteenth century managed to
do little to stop the spread of protestantism
the ottoman turks conquered
constantinople, north africa, and the balkans
by the late eighteenth century, mogul prosperity was shaken by
the coming of the british
who established the mogul dynasty?
babur
the rump parliament did
abolish the monarchy, behead charles i, and declare england a republic or commonwealth
louis xiv maintained complete authority as monarch by
distracting the nobles and royal princes with court life, to keep them out of politics
local, lower-ranking officials called zamindars did
exercise considerable power, receive farm plots, and keep part of the taxes they collected
sir robert clive was an aggressive british empire builder who
was empowered by the british crown to fight any force that threatened the east india company's power in india
oliver cromwell's defeat of the king's forced allowed him to
take control of england and eventually establish a military dictatorship
the edict of nantes recognized catholicism as the official religion of france, and
gave the huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges
one of the richest parts of philip ii's empire was
the spanish netherlands
montesquieu's most lasting contribution to political thought was his
analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances
the scientific method was
based on collecting and analyzing evidence, a systematic procedure, and crucial to the evolution of science
according to the ptolemaic system,
the universe is a series of concentric spheres with earth fixed at the center
rene descartes believed in one absolute truth
his own existence
all of the following were outcomes of the seven year's war in north america
spanish florida came under british control, france gave louisiana to spain, and canada became british
galileo's observations seemed to indicate that
the heavenly bodies were composed of material substance just like earth, not pure orbs of light
in jean-jacques rousseau's concept of a social contract,
an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
in the wealth of nations, adam smith gave all the following roles to government
protection (the army), defense (the police), and public works
rationalism is the belief that
reason is the chief source of knowledge
who has been rightly called the father of modern rationalism
rene descartes
catherine the great of russia did
enlarge the russian empire, expand serfdom, and favor the landed nobility
the concern of eighteenth-century monarchs for a balance of power involved
larger armies, expanding territory, and preventing domination by one state
diderot's encyclopedia was used to
attack religious superstition
the union of england and scotland in 1707 created
the united kingdom of great britain
rousseau believed in all of the following
education fostering natural instincts, rule of the general will, and balance of heart and mind
frederick the great of prussia
enlarged the army
the first philosopher to emphasize reason instead of religious faith, and thought people were naturally fearful and greedy
thomas hobbes
adam smith believed in laissez-faire, by which he meant that
the state should not regulate the economy
a philosopher who greatly admired the parliamentary system of britain and believed in the separation of powers. he also encouraged the countries of spanish america to join together as one nation
simon bolivar
which british head of cabinet acquired canada and india
william pitt the elder
this philosopher believed that a successful government would have different branches of government with separation of their powers
baron de montesquieu
a priest that worked to improve conditions for the amerindians and mestizos in mexico and helped fight for mexican independence
miguel hidalgo y costilla
italian philosopher whose ideas led to changes in european and american criminal laws
cesare beccaria
in the war of austrian succession
prussia invaded austria
inductive reasoning involved
proceeding from the particular to the general
john locke's ideas suggest that people were
molded by their experiences
to voltaire and many other philosophes the universe was
like a clock
isaac newton's universal law of gravitation
showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe
the philosopher wrote extensively about the education system and encouraged children to immerse themselves in nature in order to be well-rounded individuals
jean-jacques rousseau
_____ was the first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe
nicholas copernicus
this diplomat believed in equal education regardless of social status and supported the people during the french revolution that believed a king should not have total control
thomas jefferson
______ wrote on the fabric of the human body which presented a careful and accurate examination of human anatomy
andreas vesalius
what is the most important difference between the ptolemaic system and the copernican system
the celestial body at the center of the universe
as a result of the treaty of paris in 1763
great britain gained control of india and north american, making it the world's greatest colonial power
francis bacon, an english philosopher, believed scientists should
use inductive reasoning
montesquieu's ideas were used in
the united states constitution
francis bacon who developed the scientific method was a
philosopher
rousseau argued that society should be governed by
a social contract
the idea that the government should not regulate the economy
laissez-faire
system of planetary motion that places earth at the centure of the universe
geocentric
system of planetary motion that places the sun at the center of the universe
heliocentric
system of government where rulers tried to use enlightened ideas, while keeping their royal powers
enlightened absolutism
the offspring of europeans and native americans
mestizo
an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law
deism
elegant drawing room where people would meet to discuss the ideas of the enlightenment
salon
the geocentric model of the universe that prevailed in the middle ages
ptolemaic system
idea that society agrees to be governed by its general will, and should be subject to the general will
social contract
the idea that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by observing and testing
inductive reasoning
system of thought by descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
rationalism