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38 terms

American Government Unit 7

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Appellate Jurisdiction
hear case on appeal, never for 1st time
Arraignment
enter plea, trial scheduled if "not guilt"
Bail
$ accused pays, gets back when shows up to court
Bill of Indictment
pre-trial to see if there's reasonable chance of guilt
Common Law
law based on customs/traditions of area
Contempt of Court
disobeying a court order
Court of Appeals
ease pressure on Supreme Court, 13 total
District Court
1st trial courts for all cases under fed law
Docket
court calendar
Equity
law tries to provide justice when other two (common/statutory) don't apply
Exclusive Jurisdiction
only one person gets to hear case
Felony
serious criminal offense
Grand Jury
does investigations
Injunction
court order to do or not do something
Judicial Review
power to declare a law unconstitutional; held by Supreme Court
Misdemeanor
minor criminal offense
Municipal Court
small state courts dealing with specific issues
Original Jurisdiction
case head for 1st time
Perjury
lying under oath
Petit Jury
decides guilt
Precedent
decision made in past that is used to make decision in present in similar type of case
Probate
deals with estate of dead person
Statutory Law
law passed by legislative body
Subpoena
court order telling person to act as a witness
Writ of Certiorari
lawyer has to file requesting Supreme Court case, tells reasons why
Writ of Habeas Corpus
judicial mandate requiring that a prisoner be brought before the court
Writ of Mandamus
Court order directing gov officials
Brief
everything about the case, filed by lawyer to Supreme Court Justice
Civil Cases
dispute between 2 people
Mistrial
suspect gets off, can be retried
Citizen's Arrest
arrest made by a person who is not acting as a sworn law-enforcement official
Hung Jury
cannot reach a decision
US Supreme Court
by founding fathers, power of judicial review, 9 Justices, 8 Associates, 1 Chief
Territorial Courts
fed courts that deal with US territories
General Trial Courts
district courts
Majority/Minority Opinion
sets forth the decision of the court and an explanation of the rationale behind the court's decision, written
Concurrent Jurisdiction
federal and state courts apply, Plaintiff decides which one
Federal Judges
appointed by President, approved by Senate, hold office for life based on good behavior