50 terms

# States of Matter Review

Chapter 3 States of Matter Test Review
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Heavier particles move
faster
What determines the speed of aoms and molecules
their size and temperature
Archimede's principle
the boyant force on an object in the fluid is equal to the weight of the displaced volume of fluid
Viscosity
the resistance of a fluid to flow
Solid
holds its shape without a container
Kinetic theory implies
the higher the temperature the faster the particles move
Law of Conservation of Mass
mass cannot be created or destroyed
Ice floats in water because
it is less dense than water
Boyle's law relates the pressure of a gas to its
volume
When a fixed sample of gas increases in volume it must also
decrease in pressure and increase in temperature
Calculation for pressure
divide force by the area over which the force is exerted
Buoyant force
Upward force exerted on an object immersed or floating on a liquid
As the volume of a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature decreases, its pressure
increases
All matter is made of atoms and molecules that are
alway in motion
The law of conservation of energy states that
a substance has the same energy before and after a change of state
When ice melts to form liquid, energy is
released
The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid is the
freezing point
The engine of a car left running becomes hot because
energy is transferred from burning gasoline
A substance changes from a liquid to a gas during evaporation because
energy is absorbed
Examples of fluid
air, water, carbon dioxide
The ability of an object to float on a a fluid is influenced by
buoyant force of a fluid, density of the object and density of the fluid
Pascal's principle states that a contained fluid exerts pressure in what way
equally in all directions
Force divided by the area over which the force is exerted is the calculation for
pressure
As the pressure of a moving liquid increases, its speed
decreases
Gay-Lussac's Law
Law relating the temperature and pressure of gas
As the pressure of a gas at constant volume decreases, its pressure
decreases
Gasses are unique in comparison to solids and liquids because they
are easily compressible
As the pressure of a gas at constant temperature decreases, its volume
increases
P1V1=2V2
Gay-Lussac's Law
Which of these properties is shared by solids, liquids and gases
their particles are in constant motion
Why does the volume of a gas decrease when the pressure increases
Gas particles are pushed together when the pressure is increased
A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object is called
temperature
The process of a liquid becoming a gas is called
evaporation
The process of a liquid becoming a solid is called
freezing
Which state of matter has a definite volume, but not a definite shape
liquid
How does the density of an object that sinks into a fluid compare to the density of the fluid
the object that sinks is more dense than the fluid
The kinetic theory helps to explain the differences between
states of matter
A solid becomes a gas through a process called
sublimation
A gas becomes a liquid through a process called
condensation
When a fixed sample of gas increases in volume, it must also
decrease in pressure
What are the five changes of state
melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation and sublimation
Solid
Particles are rigid, fixed
Liquid
Paricles can slide past each other, but are still packed together
Gas
Particles are in constant motion and rarely stick together
Plasma
Particles have broken down and become ionized
Properties of Gas
No defifinate shape or volume, expand to fill container, compressible, low density and more empty space between particles.
Why does a duck float
the duck is less dense than the water
When an object floats
the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the objec
For any change of state of matter to occur
energy must be transforred
Energy can be converted from one form to another but it CANNOT be
created or destroyed