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the primary pascemaker of the heart, located at the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium
Most comman clinical manifestations with Cardiac
chest pain, dyspnea, peripheral edema, weight gain,fatigue, dizziness,synocope
electrical activation of a cell by the influx of Na into the cell while K exits the cell
Relative refractory period
phase in which cells require a stronger-than-normal stimulus to depolarize
ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in responce to stimulation, Increased by catecholamines, SNS, some medications and decreased by hypoxemia, acidosis, and some medications
resistance to ejection of blood from the ventricle, affected by systemic vascular resistance annd pulmonary vascular
factors that influance the development of Hypertension
^sympathetic nervous system, ^reabsorption of Na and Chloride,and water by the kidneys, ^activity of the renin-angiotensin system, Decreases vasodiation, insulin resistance
Late symptoms of Hypertension
Symptoms are seen late and very dangerous, Eye changes, Renal damage, Myocardial infaraction, Cardiac hypertrophy, stroke
Major Risk factors for Cardio
Hypertension, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia, DM, microalbuminuria or GFR <60,old age, family history
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