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26 terms

Med Surg 1

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Three layers of the heart
Endocardium, Myocardium, Epicardium
Erb's Point
located at the third intercostal space to the left of the sternum
SA node
the primary pascemaker of the heart, located at the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium
Most comman clinical manifestations with Cardiac
chest pain, dyspnea, peripheral edema, weight gain,fatigue, dizziness,synocope
Myocardium
the heart muscle
Depolarization
electrical activation of a cell by the influx of Na into the cell while K exits the cell
Repolarization
return of the cell to the resting state caused by re-entry of K and exit of Na
Effective refractory period
phase in which cells are incapable of depolarizing
Relative refractory period
phase in which cells require a stronger-than-normal stimulus to depolarize
Stroke volume
the amount of blood ejected wiht each heartbeat
Cardiac out put
amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in liter per min
Preload
degree of strech of the cardiac muscle fiber at the end of diastole, Frank Starlin law
Contractility
ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in responce to stimulation, Increased by catecholamines, SNS, some medications and decreased by hypoxemia, acidosis, and some medications
After load
resistance to ejection of blood from the ventricle, affected by systemic vascular resistance annd pulmonary vascular
Ejection fraction
percent of end-diastolic volume ejected with each heartbeat
Control of heart rate
Autonomic nervous system and baroreceptors
Control of Strike volume
Preload, afterload, contarctility
factors that influance the development of Hypertension
^sympathetic nervous system, ^reabsorption of Na and Chloride,and water by the kidneys, ^activity of the renin-angiotensin system, Decreases vasodiation, insulin resistance
Manifestation of Hypertension
no symptoms other then elivated BP
Late symptoms of Hypertension
Symptoms are seen late and very dangerous, Eye changes, Renal damage, Myocardial infaraction, Cardiac hypertrophy, stroke
Aging
PVR increases , widened paulse pressure, systolic HTN with normal DBP
Major Risk factors for Cardio
Hypertension, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia, DM, microalbuminuria or GFR <60,old age, family history
Classification of HTN (JNCVII) normal
<120/<80
Clasification of HTN (JNCVII) pre-hypertenson
120-139/80-89
Clasification of HTN (JNCVII) Stage 1
140-159/90-99
Clasification of HTN (JNCVII) Stage 2
>160/>100