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15 terms

Botany Final Vocab

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synapomorphies/ homologous features
Features similar to each other because they have descended from a common ancestral feature
homoplasies/ analogous features
Features similar to each other because of response to similar environments and selection pressures.
convergent evolution
process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
clade
a group of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor
monophyletic group
An ancestor and all of its descendants
paraphyletic group
a monophyletic group in which some descendants of the common ancestor have been removed; not used
primary endosymbiosis
the process in which a eukaryote engulfs another living prokaryote; if one cell dies, the other is able to continue living.
secondary endosymbiosis
when a eukaryote cell engulfs another eukaryote cell that has undergone primary endosymbiosis;after the cell is engulfed it becomes dependent on the larger cell and cannot leave and return to its original state.
embryophyte
TRUE PLANT; all plants that have multicellular reproductive structures with sterile tissue (this excludes algae); sporophyte is retained on the female gametophyte; characteristic of nonvascular plants.
sporophyte
Diploid (2n) phase that produces 1n spores through meiosis; makes SPORES in a sporangium.
gametophyte
Haploid (1n) phase that produces 1n gametes through mitosis; makes gametes in a gametangium.
hydroids
Elongated cells aligned with those above and below it that conduct water and dissolved minerals and lose cytoplasm.
leptoids
Resemble sieve cells, elongate, with interconnections with adjacent cells, and lack nuclei though retain cytoplasm.
foot
Interface with gametophore, absorbs sugars,minerals, and water.
capsule
Consists of outer layer of sterile cells and inner column of sterile cells (the columella).