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synapomorphies/ homologous features

Features similar to each other because they have descended from a common ancestral feature

homoplasies/ analogous features

Features similar to each other because of response to similar environments and selection pressures.

convergent evolution

process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments


a group of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor

monophyletic group

An ancestor and all of its descendants

paraphyletic group

a monophyletic group in which some descendants of the common ancestor have been removed; not used

primary endosymbiosis

the process in which a eukaryote engulfs another living prokaryote; if one cell dies, the other is able to continue living.

secondary endosymbiosis

when a eukaryote cell engulfs another eukaryote cell that has undergone primary endosymbiosis;after the cell is engulfed it becomes dependent on the larger cell and cannot leave and return to its original state.


TRUE PLANT; all plants that have multicellular reproductive structures with sterile tissue (this excludes algae); sporophyte is retained on the female gametophyte; characteristic of nonvascular plants.


Diploid (2n) phase that produces 1n spores through meiosis; makes SPORES in a sporangium.


Haploid (1n) phase that produces 1n gametes through mitosis; makes gametes in a gametangium.


Elongated cells aligned with those above and below it that conduct water and dissolved minerals and lose cytoplasm.


Resemble sieve cells, elongate, with interconnections with adjacent cells, and lack nuclei though retain cytoplasm.


Interface with gametophore, absorbs sugars,minerals, and water.


Consists of outer layer of sterile cells and inner column of sterile cells (the columella).

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