APES Chapter 13
Terms in this set (104)
Urban growth boundary (UGB, was part of what legislation?)
A line on a map intended to separate areas desired to be urban from areas desired to be rural, development for housing, commerce, and industry was encouraged within but severely restricted beyond them in Portland in 1973, part of Senate Bill 100 in Oregon
Disadvantages to Urban growth boundaries (name all 4)
-Increases housing prices within their boundaries
-Restricts development outside UGB
-Increases the density of new housing inside the UGB
-Increasing pressure to expand boundaries
Senate Bill 100
(1973, in Oregon) required every city and county to draw up a comprehensive land use plan in line with statewide guidelines; must draw up Urban growth boundary (UGB) as part of land use plan; focus of acclaim, criticism, and careful study for years afterward by other states and communities attempting management of own urban/suburban growth; in response to resident worries of sprawling development ruining beloved communities and landscapes
Metropolitan Service District (nickname, regions it represents, actions, goals and success of them)
Nickname: Metro; regional entity established by Portland residents to help plan how land would be apportioned in their region; represents 25 municipalities and three counties; adopted the Portland-area urban growth boundary in 1979; has tried to focus growth on existing urban centers and to build communities where people can walk or take mass transit from home, work, and shopping (new urbanism); policies have largely worked as intended
All 4 effects of results of Metropolitan Service District's goals
-Portland's downtown and older neighborhoods have thrived
-regional urban centers are becoming denser and more community-oriented
-mass transit has expanded
-development has been limited on land beyond the UGB (urban growth boundary)
Ballot Measure 37
(Nov. 2004, Oregon) requires state to compensate certain land owners if government legislation has decreased the value of their land (ex. regulations prevent landowners outside UGBs [urban growth boundaries] from subdividing their lots and selling them for housing development); state now has to pay these landowners to make up for theoretically lost income or else allow them to ignore the regulations; could effectively gut Oregon's zoning, planning, and land use rules
Over 7,000 landowners filed claims for payments or waivers once the measure cleared months of challenges in the courts; new ballot measure revisiting issue will be sent to voters in Nov. 2007
The shift from the countryside into towns and cities (rural to urban)
Since 1950, what has happened to the world's urban population?
it's gotten four times bigger
Two reasons urban populations are growing
1. total human population is growing; 2. more people are moving from farms to cities than are moving from cities to farms
Worldwide, the proportion of population that is urban rose from what % in 1950 to what % in 2005?
Rose from 30% half a century ago to 49% in 2005
Between 1950 and 2005, the global urban population increased by what % each year, whereas the rural population rose by what % annually?
Global urban population increased by 2.65% each year; rural population rose by 1.78% annually
From 2005 to 2030, the UN projects that the global urban population will grow by what % annually, whereas the rural population will decline by what % annually?
Global urban population will grow by 1.78% annually; rural population will decline by 0.03% annually
Comparison of current urbanization trends between developed and developing nations (and why)
Developed: urbanization has slowed because roughly 3 out of every 4 people already live in cities, towns, and suburbs; Developing: urbanizing rapidly because rural people are streaming to cities in search of jobs and urban lifestyles
smaller communities in rising cities around their outer rings
In 1850, the US Census Bureau classified only what % of U.S. citizens as urban dwellers, which percentage passed what % shortly before 1920 and now stands at what other %?
in 1850, it was 15%; passed 50% shortly before 1920; is now 80%
UN demographers estimate that virtually all the world's population growth over the next 25 years will be absorbed by what areas?
urban areas of developing nations
Today, how many different cities are home to more than 10 million residents?
20 different cities are home to more than 10 million residents
What is the world's most populous city, and how many people is it home to?
Tokyo, Japan; home to 35 million people
North America's what 2 largest metropolises are home to how many million people each?
Mexico City and New York City, each have about 19 million people
During growth, most American cities have followed what pattern?
rapid population expansion due to increased trade as the nation expanded westward, followed by stagnation in the mid-20th century as many city residents moved outward into the growing suburbs
Portland city growth pattern (chronologically)
city grew as it shipped farm products from the fertile Willamette Valley overseas and accepted products from other North American ports and from Asia; growth stalled in 1950s to 1970s as crowding and deteriorating economic conditions drove city dwellers to suburbs; subsequently, policies undertaken to improve city center's attractiveness helped restart growth
Comparison of current growth of developing cities to past US city growth, and effects (of current growth of developing cities)
developing are growing faster than US cities did; doing so without economic growth to match population growth
effects: many of these cities are facing overcrowding, pollution and poverty; nearly 3 out of every 4 governments of these nations have by now enacted policies to discourage movement from countryside to cities
General 'eras' and events of Portland population growth and urbanization from 1880s-2000s (in order)
Rapid growth driven by shipping trade (1890-1930); Olmstead parks report (1904); Bennett Plan (1912); Forest Park dedicated (1948); Population exodus to suburbs (1950s-1970s); Urban growth boundary adopted (1979); Revitalization of city center (1980s-2000s)
What 4 things can determine a location's capability to become a successful city?
climate, topography, configuration of waterways, and economic advantages
All cities, past and present, have supported themselves by doing what (and influences how people do what)?
drawing in resources from outlying rural areas through trade, persuasion, or conquest; in turn, cities have historically influenced how people use land in surrounding areas
What factors are causing population centers to destabilize in developed nations (and have enabled a shift from cities to suburbs, particularly in the US and Canada)?
People are now globally interconnected to an unprecedented degree; fossils fuels and the proliferation of highway networks have made it easier to commute in and out of cities and to import excess resources, goods, and waste; suburbs are cleaner, less crowded, have better economic oppurtunities and schools, less crime
Sprawl (main components, and compared effects of each)
The spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from an urban center. Made up of the human population growth and per capita land consumption; major study of 100 metropolitan areas of the US between 1970 and 1990 found that, on average, each contributes about equally.
Houses and roads supplant over how much area of US rural land each year-and over how much every day?
over 2 million hectares of US rural land each year, over 2,700 hectares every day
Phoenix, Arizona's population grew how many times larger from sprawl, while its land area grew how many times larger between 1950 and 2002?
population grew 12 times larger from sprawl; land area grew 27 times larger
Each person in a suburban region takes up an average of how many times as much space as does a resident of the city proper?
Types of development that lead to sprawl (name all 4)
Uncentered commercial strip development, low-density single-use development, scattered (leapfrog) development, sparse street network
Between 1950 and 1990, the population of 50 major metropolitan areas rose by what %, and the land area they covered rose by what %?
Population rose by 80%; land area they covered rose by 305%
Reasons for increase in per capita land consumption (related to what has fostered movement away from city centers and why, these are all causes of sprawl)
most people simply like having having some space and privacy and dislike congestion; in the consumption-oriented American lifestyle that promotes bigger houses, cars, and TVs, having more space to house one's possessions becomes important
What (1 thing) has fostered movement away from city centers and why (related to reasons for increase in per capita land consumption)?
interstate highways & technologies (ex. telecommunications, internet) have fostered movement away from city centers because they free businesses from dependence on the centralized locations a major city provides, and they give workers greater flexibility to live wherever they desire
Conventional assumption on growth, business, industry (and views of it)
-Growth is good
-attracting business, industry, and residents will unfailingly increase a community's political power, economic well-being, and cultural influence
Views of it: being increasingly challenged and questioned as the negative effects of sprawl on citizen's lifestyles accumulate
negative impacts of sprawl (on these things)
transportation, pollution, health, land use, and economics
Effects of sprawl on transportation
-Constrains transportation options, forcing people to drive cars, lack of mass transit options
-creates need to drive greater distances/spend more time in vehicles
-more traffic accidents
-increases dependence on nonrenewable petroleum, with its attendant economic and environmental consequences
During the 1980s and 1990s the average length of work trips in the US increased by what %, and total vehicle miles increased at what number times the rate of population growth?
Average length of work trips in the US increased by 36%; total vehicle miles increased at 3 times the rate of population growth
Effects of sprawl on pollution
Effects on transportation give rise to these effects:
-increased carbon dioxide emissions (which contribute to global climate change)
-nitrogen/sulfur-containing air pollutants contribute to tropospheric ozone, urban smog, and acid precipitation
-motor oil and road salt from roads and parking lots pollute waterways, posing risks to ecosystems and human health
-runoff of polluted water from paved areas is estimated to be about 16 times greater than naturally vegetated areas
Effects of sprawl on health
some research suggests that sprawl promotes physical inactivity because of driven cars instead of walks used for daily errands, increases obesity and high blood pressure, which can in turn lead to other ailments
A 2003 study found that people from which US counties weigh how much more for their height than people from which US counties, and that slightly more people from which US counties show high blood pressure?
People from the most-sprawling US counties weigh 2.7 kg more for their height than people from the least-sprawling US counties; slightly more people from the most-sprawling US counties show high blood pressure
Effects of sprawl on land use
-spread of low-density development means that more land is developed while less is left as forests, fields, farmland, or ranchland
-these lands provide vital resource production, aesthetic beauty, habitat for wildlife, cleansing of water, places for recreation, and many other ecosystem services; sprawl diminishes all of these things
Of the estimated 1 million hectares of US land converted each year, how much are agricultural land and forest (in %)?
Agricultural land: 60%; Forest: 40%
Effects of sprawl on economics
drains tax dollars from existing communities and funnels them into infastructure for new development on the fringes of those communities, money that could be spent on maintaining and improving downtown centers
What do advocates for sprawling development say about its eventual effects on economics (and rebuttal from study results)?
taxes on new development eventually pay back the investment made in infastructure; however, studies have found that in most cases taxpayers continue to subsidize new development if municipalities don't pass on infastructure costs to developers
Uncentered commercial strip development
(standard approach to development resulting in sprawl) Businesses are arrayed in a long strip along a roadway, and no attempt is made to create a centralized community with easy access to consumers
Low-density single-use development
(standard approach to development resulting in sprawl) Homes are located on large lots in residential tracts far away from commercial amenities
Scattered or leapfrog development
(standard approach to development resulting in sprawl) Developments are created at great distances from a city center and are not integrated
Sparse street network
(standard approach to development resulting in sprawl) Roads are far enough apart that moderate-sized areas go undeveloped, but not far enough apart for these areas to function as natural areas or sites for recreation
City planning (and what do planners advise policymakers on)
The professional pursuit that attempts to design cities so as to maximize their efficiency, functionality, and beauty; planners advise policymakers on development options, transportation needs, public parks, and other matters
landscape architect whose 1909 Plan of Chicago represented the 1st thorough plan for a US city, was largely implented over following years and decades; was effectively the 1st recognized city planner
1909 Plan of Chicago (and what did it do)
represented the 1st thorough plan for a US city, was largely implented over following years and decades; expanded city parks and play grounds, improved neighborhood living conditions, streamlined traffic conditions, cleared industry and railroads from shore of Lake Michigan to provide public access to lake
Greater Portland Plan
recommended rebuilding of harbor and many other new developments and revampments of older things; approved by voters by a 2:1 margin, though they defeated a bond measure that would have paid for park development; as century progressed, several other planning efforts were conducted, with some ideas such as establishment of a downtown public square, came to fruition
These planners deal with the same issues as city planners, but they work on broader geographic scales and must coordinate their work with multiple municipal governments
The practice of classifying areas for different types of development and land use; gives planners a powerful means of guiding what gets built where
Opponents of Ballot Measure 37 in Oregon predicted that...
many proponents will change their minds once they begin seeing new development they don't wish to occur
UGBs (Urban growth boundaries) also appear to do what to the amounts municipalities have to pay for infastructure, compared to sprawl; best estimate nationally is that UGBs save taxpayers about what % on infastructure cost; they also seem to do what to housing prices within their boundaries?
They appear to reduce the amounts municipalities have to pay for infastructure, compared to sprawl; UGBs save taxpayers about 20% on infastructure costs; also seem to increase housing prices within their boundaries
Urbanized area increased by how much area in the decade after Portland's UGB (urban growth boundary) was established because what happened?
increased by 101 square km (39 square miles) in the decade after Portland's UGB (urban growth boundary) was established because 146,000 people were added to the population
Metro has enlarged the Portland-area UGB how many times, and population projections suggest what?
Portland-area UGB has been enlarged 3 dozen (36) times; projections suggest there will be pressure for still more expansion
"building up not out", focusing development and economic investment in existing urban centers and favoring multistory shop-house and high-rises
Principles of smart growth (name 4 of 10)
-Mixed land uses
-Compact building design
-Range of housing opportunities and choices
-Distinctive, attractive neighborhoods
-Preserve open space
-Develop existing communities
-A variety of transportation choices
-Predictable development decisions
-Community collaboration in development decisions
What do proponents of smart growth want?
they want municipalities to manage the rate, placement, and style of development (so as to promote healthy neighborhoods and communities, jobs and economic development, transportation options and environmental quality)
New urbanism (how many communities in this style are in planning or construction?)
This approach seeks to design neighborhoods on a walkable scale (THAT LAST PART IS IMPORTANT!), with homes, businesses, schools, and other amenities all close together for convenience; to develop urban centers in these ways, zoning rules must allow it, have traditionally limited density of development; over 600 communities are in planning or construction, many are complete
Mass transportation options (name 3)
-Trains and subways
smaller rail systems powered by electricity
Compact communities in the new urbanist style are arrayed around stops on a major rail transit line, enabling people to travel most places they need to go by train and foot alone.
Train and bus systems carry more than what % of each city's daily commuters?
Problems with establishing mass transport
Expensive to replace existing roads
Types of mass transit differ in their effectiveness
-Depends on city size, size of the transit system
Ways governments can encourage mass transit (name at least 4)
-Raise fuel taxes
-Tax inefficient modes of transport
-Encourage bicycle use and bus ridership
-Charge trucks for road damage
-Stimulate investment in renewed urban centers
The most-used train systems in the U.S. are in the cities that are how big in comparison to the rest?
in the largest cities
An average Portland bus is estimated to keep how many cars off of the road each day?
The fuel and productivity lost on railroad jams have been estimated to cost the US' economy how much money each year?
US' most used train systems (and rail type); each of which carry how much of each city's daily commuters?
(extensive heavy rail systems in US' largest cities) New York's subways; Wash. DC's Metro; the T in Boston; San Fran.'s BART; each carry over 1/4 of city's daily commuters
Natural lands, public parks, and open space do what?
provide greenery, scenic beauty, freedom of movement, places for recreation; keep ecological processes functioning by regulating climate, producing oxygen, filtering air and water pollutants, and providing habitat for wildlife; animals and plants also serve to satisfy biophilia (natural affinity for contact with other organisms
Portland public transit ridership trends
both bus and rail have increased steadily
Frederick Law Olmstead
leading American landscape architect when he designed New York's Central Park in 1853 and a host of urban park systems afterwards
What 2 sometimes conflicting goals motivated the establishment and design of early city parks (between which two ends of the social spectrum)?
1. parks were supposed to be 'pleasure grounds' for wealthy, who helped support their establishment financially; 2. parks were meant to alleviate congestion for poverty-stricken immigrants, these park users more interested in active recreation than carriage rides; this friction survives today in debated over recreation in city and national parks
Greenways (just definition)
Strips of land that connect parks or neighborhoods often located around rivers, streams, or canals
Greenbelts (and green spaces)
a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas (act as barriers, limit sprawl); provide habitats for animals and recreational areas for people
How are cities and towns sinks for resources?
they have to import from beyond their borders nearly everything they need to feed, clothe, and house their inhabitants; urban and suburban areas rely on large expanses of land elsewhere to supply food and other crops, as well as natural resources (e.g. water, timber); urban centers need areas of natural land to provide ecosystem services, including purification of water and air, nutrient cycling, and waste treatment
Efficiency aspect of environmental impacts of urban living (how does efficiency come into play in this concept?)
cities can minimize per capita consumption by maximizing efficiency of resource use and delivery of goods and services (ex. providing electricity from a power plant for more houses close together is more efficient than doing the same to far-flung homes in the countryside)
Noise pollution (and effects)
undesired ambient sound; can induce stress and at high levels, (such as prolonged exposure to the sounds of jackhammers and/or leaf blowers) can harm hearing
describes way that city lights obscure the night sky, impairing visibility of the stars
researchers in this field hold that cities can be explicitly viewed as ecosystems and that the fundamentals of ecosystem ecology and system science apply to urban areas
heavy use of outside resources extends ecological footprints of cities to a level far beyond their actual sizes; urban dwellers have far larger ecological footprints than rural dwellers; but, urban residents tend to be wealthier, and wealth correlates with consumption
Herbert Girardet (by another estimate, he calculated that cities only take up what % of the world's land surface but consume over what % of its resources?)
An urban scholar, he calculated that the ecological footprint of London, England, extends 125 times larger than the city's actual area; calculated that cities only take up 2% of the world's land surface but consume over 75% of its resources
NIMBY (what's it stand for)
Not in My Back Yard (people don't want to be the ones taking part in making urban areas sustainable, they want other to do it instead)
How do urban centers (in a sense) preserve land?
because people are packed densely together in cities, more land outside cities is left undeveloped; if all 7 billion of us were evenly spread out across the planet, we'd have much less room for agriculture, wilderness, biodiversity, or privacy
Examples of how citizens of urban centers suffer and release waste and pollution
How they suffer:
-residents exposed to heavy chemicals, industrial compounds, and chemicals form manufactured products that accumulate in soil and water
How they release it:
-airborne pollutants cause photochemical and industrial smog, and acid precipitation
-fossil fuel combustion releases carbon dioxide and other pollutants, contributing to global climate change
-pollution isn't evenly shared among residents, those who are too poor to live in cleaner areas are generally exposed to the brunt of it, environmental justice centers on this and the fact that these people are also often racial minorities
National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program
Funded researchers to study cities as ecosystems; they are studying such topics as nutrient cycling of carbon and nitrogen, biodiversity patterns, air and water quality; also exploring ways in which humans perceive their environment and react to environmental health threats
Urban sustainability principles [advocates suggest that cities should...] (name 4)
-maximize efficient use of resources
-recycle as much as possible
-develop environmentally friendly technologies
-account full for external costs
-offer tax incentives to encourage sustainable practices
-Use locally produced resources
-Use organic waste and wastewater to restore soil fertility
-encourage urban agriculture
3 types of plan models by which cities can be modelled
Concentric rings (cities); Sector cities; Multi-nuclei cities
(2007) unveiled by Mayor Michael Bloomberg to "hopefully make NYC the 1st environmentally sustainable 21st-century city"; is a 127-item program that aims to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, improve mass transit, plant trees, clean up polluted land and rivers, and enhance access to parkland, all in order to make NYC a better place to live even as it gains 1 million more people by 2030; most controversial aspect is a proposal to charge drivers for driving into downtown Manhattan, will need state government and city resident support
Concentric rings (cities)
have central business district (CBD) surrounded by industrial areas, with residential areas on the outer rings; in developed Western cities, affluent houses are on outskirts of city, with more poor housing closer to center; in developing countries, this is often reversed
Sector cities (often occurs why?)
locate bulk of industrial and commercial areas in city center; other sectors assigned to specific purposes developed around them; this design often occurs because affluent areas are built around desirable features
probably closest representation to majority of world's cities, built around multiple centers or satellite towns rather than a central CBD (central business district); as city expands, distance between CBD and outlying areas becomes greater, and workers often have to commute long distances from their homes to their place of work; as population grows, satellite areas become larger and more influential
new suburbs and housing developments designed in clusters to fit into the natural landscape; leaves areas for the original plants and animals to remain, also reduces noise pollution from traffic
Hectares to acres conversion
1 hectare = 2.5 acres
In 2004, Africa and Asia were urbanized to what degree (high v. low)?
In 2004, North and South America, and the Arab countries were urbanized to what degree (high v. low)?
A healthy growth in urbanization can result in what type of economic growth?
healthy economic growth
Singapore, Japan produces how much of its own meat?
all of it
Name both effects of zoning (what can it do to things regarding urbanization?)
-can restrict areas to a single use, this is often done in suburban residential areas in so-called bedroom communities
-gives home buyers and business owners security, they know in advance what types of development can and can't be located nearby
Name all 4 effects of greenways (what can they do for urbanized areas, and areas in general?)
-may provide access to networks of walking trails
-protect water quality
-boost property values
-serve as habitat corridors (corridors for the movement of birds and wildlife)