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Science Chapter 10.2
Terms in this set (22)
What is atmosphere?
layers of gases that extend above a planet's surface
What are the two main gases in the lower atmosphere?
nitrogen and oxygen
What are the five layers of the earth?
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and the exosphere.
the troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere. The troposphere is the densest layer of the atmosphere. Almost all water vapour is found in this layer. Solar radiation and heat emitted from the earth's surface affects the troposphere causing the air to move around continuously. It also contains the particulate matter (dust).
at the top off the troposphere theere is a transition zone called tropopause. The stratosphere has dry air with few clouds. Fairly constant temperature. Winds are strong and steady. Airplanes often fly close to the bottom on the stratosphere. Helps to contain the moisture in the troposphere and blocks out damaging radiation from the sun. An important part of the stratosphere is the ozone layer.
millions of small pieces of dust and meteors crash through the mesosphere. Collisions with the particles in the mesosphere cause thermal energy to be released. Gives us shooting stars!
solar radiation is the strongest. When charged particles in the Earth's magnetic fields collide with the particles in the thermosphere, a bright glow can be seen. The bright glow in the northern hemisphere is referred to as the Northern lights.
merges with outer space.
What is insolation?
the amount of solar radiation that reaches a certain area is called insolation.
What is the angle of incidence?
the angle between a ray reaching a surface and a line perpendicular to that surface.
What does convection transfer throughout the atmosphere?
What does conduction transfer through the earth's surface?
heat. This is done by the ground transferring heat particles in the air directly above it. The particles in the air heated by the earth's surface collide with particles in the lowest level of the atmosphere, and the temperature of the air increases.m m
What does the radiation budget account for?
It is like a savings account. It accounts for incoming and outgoing radiation.
What is albedo?
the amount of radiation reflected by a surface.
What is weather?
the condition of the atmosphere in a specific place and at a specific time.
What is weather closely related with?
Heat transfer in the atmosphere.
What is pressure?
the amount of force per unit of area.
What is atmospheric pressure?
the pressure exerted by the mass of air above any point on Earth's surface.
What do we use to measure atmospheric pressure?
What is the SI unit for atmospheric pressure
Pascals or Kilopascals
What are the three factors that affect atmospheric pressure?
Altitude, temperature and humidity.
How does altitude affect atmospheric pressure?
as your altitude increases, the density of the air decreases. The gas molecules in the air are spread father apart and collide with nearby surfaces less often. Therefore, the atmospheric pressure decreases.
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