Nutrition Chapter 1 Terms

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Nutrition
the science of food and its relationship to health
health
state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
anemia
iron deficiency
primary prevention
implementation of practices that are likely to avert the occurrence of diseas e
secondary prevention
the institution of monitoring techniques to discover incipient diseases early enough to enhance the opportunity to control their effects
tertiary prevention
the use of treatment techniques after a disease has occurred to prevent complications or to promote maximum adaption
nutrients
the chemical substances supplied by food that the body needs for growth, maintance and repair
essential nutrients
one that the human body requires but cannot manufacture in sufficient amounts to meet bodily needs
nonessential nutrients
nutrients not needed in the diet because the body can make them from other substances
conditionally essential nutrients
nutrients that a normal body can manufacture in sufficient quantities
metabolism
the sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in the body
energy
defined in the physical sciences as the capacity to do work
energy nutrients
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins , the nutrients that supply energy
kilocalories
a measure of energy in both food and of the body
phytochemical
physiologically active substances from plants
functional foods
foods or food ingredients that have additional health or physiological benefits over and above the normal nutritional value they provide
nutrigenetics
a sub field of nutritional genomics
my plate
latest educational food guidance system promoted by the USADA
malnutrition
can be caused by inadequate or unbalanced intake of food or nutrients or to ineffective processing by the body due to malfunction or disease
food insecurity
the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or doubtful ability to acquire food, whether some of the time or always
carotenoids
precursor of vitamin A
nutritional status
refers to the body's condition related to the intake and use of nutrients
dietary status
describes what a client has been eating
nutritional assessment
second level of methodology that evaluates a patients nutritional status based on physical exam, anthropometric measurements, lab data, and food intake info
anthropometry
the science of measuring the body to determine growth, body composition, and nutritional status
triceps skin fold
measurement that helps to differentiate between a person who is heavy because of muscle mass or of excess fat
midarm circumference
measurement is easily obtained and can be used to monitor a patients nutritional progress
abdominal circumference (girth)
used to monitor growth of a fetus or of abnormal tissue within the abdomen
ascites
accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
underwater weighing
compares a person's scale weight with his or her weight underwater to calculate body fat, used primarily for research
DEXA
two x ray beams are passed through the body to measure bone, fat and muscle tissue and the percentage of those tissues in the body can be calculated
Quetelet Index (BMI)
derived from weight and height as was designed to provide a measure of weight independent of height
Estimated average requirements (EARs)
intake the meets the estimated nutrient needed for 50% of the individuals in the defined group. EAR is used to set the RDA and to assess or plan the intake of groups.
Recommended dietary allowance (RDAs)
intake that meets the needs of 97 to 98% of individuals in the defined group. RDA is intended for use as a goal for daily intake by individuals, not for assessing the adequacy of an individual's nutrient intake
Adequate Intakes (AIs)
average observed or experimentally determined intake that appears sufficient to meet individuals in the stated group. AI is used if EAR or RDA cannot be set because of lack of information
acceptable macro-nutrient distribution range (AMDR)
percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate, fat, and protein associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while still providing sufficient intake of essential nutrients
Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs)
highest average daily intake by an individual that is unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in 97 to 98% of individuals in the defined group
exchange
a defined quantity of food within a list that can be interchanged with other foods in the same list
culture
refers to all the socially transmitted behavior patterns shared by most members of a particular group that guide their thoughts and actions
life expectancy
prospect of a certain mean length of life at a specified age based on currency mortality rates in the population being considered
ethnocentrism
the belief that one's own group's view of the world is superior to that of others
acculturation
the process of adopting the values, attitudes, and behavior of another culture and often encourages less desirable health behaviors than were previously practiced
self efficacy
believe they can perform a given task or behavior and will be more amenable to nutritional prescriptions and change than someone with less faith in her/his ability or a more fatalistic view of life
halal food
american muslims view as health promoting and integral to healing