APES CH. 14 Review
Terms in this set (80)
A common form of extracting gold from rock used in Australia and North America is
cyanide heap leaching
The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called the
Which part of the earth's crust makes up 71% of the crust?
Large sections of the earth's crust, called __________, move slowly on the mantle below them.
The tectonic plates are made of a combination of the crust and the outermost part of the mantle. This combination is called the
When an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate the continental plate usually slides up and over the denser oceanic plate, pushing it down into the mantle, a process called
Tectonic plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fault at a(n)
Which of the following is not one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?
The worst volcanic disaster in U.S. history occurred when which mountain erupted?
Mount St. Helens
The place where an earthquake begins is called its
The location on the earth's surface above where an earthquake begins is called its
The severity of an earthquake is a measure of its seismic waves, and is called
Large waves generated in the ocean by an earthquake, landslide, or volcanic activity are called
Granite is what type of rock?
Although often covered by other kinds of rock, which type of rock forms most of the earth's crust?
The change of rocks from one type to another type is known as
the rock cycle
Which of the following is not a type of metallic mineral?
Nonmetallic mineral resources include all of the following except
Waste soil and rock removed during surface mining is called
Which of the following would most likely be used to mine coal on hilly terrain?
Many of the millions of miners that have moved into tropical forests and other tropical regions looking for gold use the very destructive technique known as
Which of the following is associated more with surface mining than subsurface mining?
It disturbs more land.
Which of the following does mining not cause?
The portion of ore that does not contain the desired mineral is called
Which of the following is not one of the important, but scarce, mineral resources?
Which of the following is not a member of the group of nations that supply most of the nonrenewable mineral resources used by modern societies?
The United States, Germany, and Russia, with only 8% of the world's population, consume about _____ of the world's most widely used metals.
It is now necessary for the United States to import _____ of the 24 most important nonrenewable mineral resources.
When a resource has been economically depleted, we can do all of the following, except
Use other supplies.
Depletion time is the time it takes to use up approximately _____% of the mineral reserves at a given rate of use.
The United States subsidizes mining companies through depletion allowances that amount to _____ % of their gross income from mining and processing.
If consumers paid the full market cost of mineral extraction and processing, all of the following would occur, except
Economies would collapse.
In 2004, the very large mining company Phelps Dodge bought public land in Colorado worth $155 million and paid how much for it?
The mining law that governs the exploration and mining of hardrock minerals on U.S. public lands was passed into law in what year?
The advantages of using microorganisms for mining include all of the following, except
faster removal of the mineral
Which of the following is true concerning the possible mining of the ocean floor?
Countries cannot come to an agreement about who owns the minerals.
The use of Grancrete to build houses has all of the following advantages, except
It requires more wood for construction.
Recycling aluminum beverage cans and scrap aluminum produces _____ percent less pollution than mining and processing aluminum ore.
In 1975, which company began a Pollution Prevention Pays program?
An important goal for a sustainable society is to make manufacturing processes cleaner and more sustainable by having them mimic how nature deals with waste. This is called
Enough rock to equal the weight of 50 automobiles has to be removed to extract a palm-sized amount of gold.
The continents, riding on tectonic plates, have moved thousands of kilometers, breaking apart and recombining over the earth's history.
The highest peaks and deepest valleys are on the continents.
External geological processes tend to build up the earth's surface, including mountains and volcanoes.
The Great Lakes formed as continental glaciers that retreated at the end of the last ice age.
An active volcano forms where magma reaches the earth's surface through a vent or a fissure.
Soil that forms from the weathering of volcanic lava is not very fertile.
Most earthquakes occur near the center of a tectonic plate.
Tidal waves in the open ocean can travel as fast as jet airplanes.
The slowest of the earth's cyclic processes is the carbon cycle.
Rocks can be converted from one type to another.
Minerals are considered nonrenewable resources because they take so long to form.
The higher the grade of ore, the higher the environmental impact.
The most commonly used nonmetallic minerals are sand and gravel.
At least 1,200 miles of Appalachia's rivers and streams have been buried by mining activities in the region.
Mining operations produce one-third of all solid waste in the United States.
If all nations extract metal resources at the same rate as developed nations do today, there may not be enough metal to meet the demand, even with extensive recycling.
If geologists identify 10,000 possible deposits of a given resource, only one will become a producing mine or well.
Mining companies have not been successful in pressuring the U.S. Congress to continue the current mining law, or in keeping the royalties at the current levels.
Plastics could be used to replace many metals, but the plastics are made from oil.
Styrofoam blocks are now being used for bridge construction.
The common mining process used in the United States and Australia uses a very toxic chemical called __________.
The outermost and thinnest zone of the earth that is found under the oceans is called the __________ __________.
When oceanic plates move apart, molten rock, called __________, flows up through the cracks formed by the movement.
When two continental plates collide they form __________ __________.
Magma that manages to reach the surface of the earth is called __________.
When energy that has accumulated over time along a fault is released, the result is vibrations called __________ __________.
The __________ __________, which measures the magnitude of an earthquake, has units that are each 10 times stronger than the one below it.
A __________ is an element or inorganic compound that occurs naturally in the earth's crust as a solid with a regular internal crystalline structure.
Sandstone and shale are types of __________ rock.
A mineral resource is a concentration of naturally occurring material from the earth's crust that can be extracted and processed into useful products at an __________ __________.
Identified resources from which the mineral can be extracted profitably at current prices are called __________.
The environmental impact of mining depends on the percentage of metal content, or __________.
Cleaning up surface mining sites worldwide would cost __________ of dollars.
In the United States, the mining industry releases almost __________ of all toxic emissions.
A mineral becomes __________ __________ when it costs more than it is worth to find, extract, transport, and process it.
Between 1982 and 2007, U.S. mining companies received more than $ __________ in government subsidies.
It will cost the U.S. taxpayer approximately __________ dollars to clean up the 500,000 mining sites that have been abandoned.
Ecoindustrial parks are now being built or planned, some of them on abandoned industrial sites called __________.
Some analysts think we should be asking how we can decrease our __________ and __________ of nonrenewable resources rather than how can we get more.
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