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Mediterranean Trade

Sea Trade from the Silk Roads to Mediterranean Europe.

Line of Demarcation

Imaginary line that declared that the land east of it was Portugal's and the land west of it was Spain's. This line ran through the Atlantic.


Japanese warrior. Chieftains becomes lords in a new kind of feudalism. Land owning lords


A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.

Zheng He

Chinese admiral that captained the Chinese voyages of exploration

Ming Dynasty

After Hongwu and the army drove the mongols out of china, Hongwu became the emperor of this new dynasty. This dynasty brought back Confucuism, merit based civil service exams, and started agricultural reforms.

Fredrick II

Prussian king; one of best educated and most cultured monarchs in the 18th century. Willing to make enlightened reforms but kept Prussia's serfdom and rigid social structure intact and avoided any additional reforms; also enlarged Prussian Army; credited with making Prussia a great European power


Russian land owning nobles

Seven Years' War

Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land. Also known as the French and Indian War

Thirty Years' War

This was the international war between the Protestants and Catholics that eventually ended religious conflicts in Europe. 1618-1648

Maria Theresa

Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for austrian society

War Austrian Succession

This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state

Peter the Great

Czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government. Ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725.

Glorious Revolution

The English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.

Edict of Nantes

1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities.

Louis XIV

King of France from 1643 to 1715 who exemplified absolutism. He ordered for the building of the Palace of Versailles. He is also known as the sun king.


The return of a constitutional monarchy to Great Britain in 1660 under Charles II

English Civil War

Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king

Divine Right

belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god. Used by absolute rulers

Scientific Revolution

the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned

Johannes Kepler

German astronomer who discovered planets move in an elliptical movement not circular


Polish astronomer whop developed the heliocentric theory

Heliocentric Theory

Idea that everything revolves around the sun. Developed by Copernicus


Discovered many things such as the law of the pendulum, falling object fall at a fixed rate, objects of different weights fall at same speed, made the telescope, law of motion, and the starry messenger. Put under house arrest because his discoveries went against church teachings.

Isaac Newton

English scientist who made the law of gravitation and published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.

John Locke

An Enlightened philosopher who believed that everyone is born with three natural rights, Life, liberty, and property. And if a government fails to protect these rights then the people have the right to over throw the government.


a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions

Congress of Vienna

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon

Klemens von Metternich

Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression

French Estates

The First was made up of clergy. The Second was made up of rich nobles. The Third included bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers.

French Revolution

Took place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.

Estates General

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.

Reign of Terror

This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed through the use of the guillotine.

National Assembly

French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.

Jean Paul Marat

Radical,revolutionary journalist who published a radical journal called Friend of the People.

Georges Danton

dominated the Committee of Public Safety

Maximillien Robespierre

Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror. Also the leader of the Jacobins.

Scorched Earth

Stragedy the Russians used when Napolean invaded. This method is when the Russians retreated and burned crops and villages as they ran to destroy everything Napolean would gain.

Giuseppe Mazzini

a radical idealistic patriot who wanted a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and will of the people in Italy

Young Italy

(1830) secret society, goal was a free and united Italy, founded by Mazzini

Camilo di Cavour

Italian Prime Miniser who united Italy while trying to bring it under Sardinia's control.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882).

Otto von Bismark

Prussian prime minister, he led the unification of Germany and the creation of the German empire.


German emperor

Industrial Revolution

the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.

Agricultural Revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.

John Stuart Mill

Questioned unregulated capitalism. More equal division of profits and women rights. Founded Utilitarianism.


Founded by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Philosophy of judging ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility of usefulness.

The Wealth of Nations

written by Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics written in 1777

Adam Smith

Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics. And believed in economic liberty

Jeremy Bentham

Founded Utilitarianism and believed that the government should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

Karl Marx

founder of communism. Wrote Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto

The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.


Economic system in which factor of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all

Muhammad Ali

Egyptian army general who stepped into power after the French left. He reformed the army, the land, and the communication of Egypt

Suez Canal

A human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the mediterranean Sea. Built by the Egyptian work force but use Britain's money so later Egypt went into debt forcing them to give the canal away to Britain

Boer War

A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.

Crimean War

Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.

Ottoman Empire

Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.

British Empire

formerly the United Kingdom and all the territories under its control; this empire consisted of Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and vast portions of Africa

Meiji Era

The period of time from 1867 to 1912, where the Japanese were under a new form of government. The leader tried to end Japan's problems by modernizing, and sending statesmen to Europe and North America to study foreign ways. This helped strengthen economic and military power.

Russo- Japanese War Sino-

Conflict between Russia and Japan where they fought over Korea. At first they agreed to stop fighting and leave it. But later when Korea attacked China, the Japanese came in and took over Korea.

Japanese War

A conflict between Russian and Japanese over Korea

Boxer Rebellion

blamed foreign people and institutions for the loss of the traditional Chinese way of life. these rebellions were traditionally skilled fighters that attacked Westerners, beginning with Christian missionaries. 1899

Opium War

a conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain's opium trade in China.

Unrestricted Sub Warfare

German policy of sinking merchant ships without warning - one of the reasons why the U.S. declared war against Germany in WWI


An agreement to stop fighting

Zimmerman Note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. A proposal for a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

Powder keg of Europe

an area in eastern europe where any conflict may result in a war between several countries

Schlieffen Plan

Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

Franz Ferdinand

Archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

Fourteen Points

A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.

Five-Year Plans

Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.

Great Purge

The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.

Nicholas II

Russia's last czar, he witnessed the fall of Russia from great power, to the entering into WWI and total collapse

Alexander II

A Russian Czar who implemented rapid social change and general modernization of Russia.

Bolshevik Revolution

The overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform, and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life.


founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.

Long March

The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.

Salt March

Gandhi led a march over 240 miles to protest the British monopoly on salt in India


Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)


Russian Parliament

Jiang Jieshi

Chinese nationalist leader that was against Mao; supported by the US; loss to Mao, so he and his followers fled to Taiwan

Sun Yixian

Overthrew the Qing Dynasty. He was the first president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912

Mao Zedong

This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.

Mein Kampf

Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer

Adolf Hitler

Leader of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich in Germany during World War II.


Living space; germany invades everywhere


Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.

Third Reich

The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.

Spanish Civil War

civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government

Francisco Franco

Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini

Munich Conference

Where every European country except Czekeslovakia met to decid whether they should appease Germany by giving them Sudetenland

Weimar Republic

The democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably.

II Duce

Benito Mussolini's nickname when he came into power and it means the 'duke' or the 'leader'

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.


The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took before WWII after the Leage of Nations agreed to appease them at the Munich Conference.


the union Hitler proclaimed when German forces marched without opposition into Austria, a union between his native land and his adopted land.


Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish propertys


Russian Parliament

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations


German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack that was used during WW2

Charles de Gaulle

French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)

Island Hopping

the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.

Bataan Death March

April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors.

Dwight Eisenhower

United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany


A fighter plane used for suicide missions by Japanese pilots in World War II


Planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris

Nuremberg Trials

Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes

Douglas MacArthur

American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II.

Demilitarization of Japan

Douglas MacArthur disbanded its armed forces


A city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire

Lend-Lease Act

Allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S

Japanese Victories

Guam, Wake, Philippines, Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore, Dutch East Indies, Burma


Japanese parliament

Battle of the Bulge

WWII battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west

Operation Barbosa

Hitler voids the nazi-soviet pact and invades the soviet union, about 3 million german soldiers invaded and caught stalin unprepared

Battle of Britain

an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German air force, which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

Battle of Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.

Battle of Stalingrad

a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter; turning point of war in Eastern Europe

Non-Aggression Pact

Agreement between Russia and Germany during World War 2 that stated that they would not attack each other in return they would divide Poland

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Final Solution

The Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler to leave the Assyrians, the perfect race.

Atomic Bombs

The United States dropped this on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the led the Japanese to surrender and helped bring and end to WWII.

Oil Embargo

The main reason that Japan decided to attack the US

Internment Camps

Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President after Pearl Harbor.


A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations that the US implemented after WWI


an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security 1949

Marshal Plan

program designed to rebuild postwar Europe and keep it from becoming communist


the willingness to go to the brink of war


American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world by blocking soviet expansion

Cultural Revolution

A 1966-1976 uprising in China led by the Red Guards, with the goal of establishing a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal.

38th Parallel

Cease fire border along north and south Korea after Korean War.

Cuban Missile Crisis

An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later. Soviets would remove their missiles from Cuba if Us did not attack Cuba.

Iron Curtain

A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist nationalist leader of the communist party in North Vietnam during WWII

Domino Theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

Berlin Blockade

The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.


1970: Russian paratroopers land in Kabal. Soviets pull out 10 years later.


First man made satellite in space in 1957 made by Russians and started the space race.

Warsaw Pact

European States must safeguard their interests to prevent war; All indicate readiness to participate in all international actions for peace; Establish joint armed forces.


the easing of relations between Soviets and US

Bay of Pigs

1960 the CIA make plans to invade Cuba to take out Castro. They trained Cuban exiles. 1961 Kennedy agrees but refuses to send in air force support. So the mission fails and causes the Cuban Missile crisis.

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