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protestant reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches


The holding of several church offices by a single person

Brethren of the Common Life

Pious laypeople In sixteenth-century Holland who Initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living.


remission of the punishment for sin by the clergy in return for services or payments

Ninety-Five Theses

Written about the Power of Indulgences; authored by reformer Martin Luther; intended for academic debate

Diet of Worms

Charles V's assembly of German estates that declared Luther's teachings heretical, after he refused to recant his beliefs

Ulrich Zwingli

Swiss humanist and admirer of Erasmus; introduced the reformation in Switzerland

William Tyndale

English translator and Protestant martyr, Translated the English Bible n 1526, and executed because English Bibles made their way to England.

Catherine of Aragon

the first wife of Henry VIII; bore a daughter named Mary and had several still births afterwards; she was later divorced by Henry after he established the Church of England

Supremacy Act 1534

Act of parliament that made Henry 8 head of church

Church of England

Anglican church, Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife

pilgrimage of grace

a huge multi-class rebellion that opposed the North to Henry's reformation.

Diet of Speyer

A gathering of German princes who protested the Catholic Church's decisions regarding Luther.

Confession of Augsburg

The main writings of Lutheranism; written by Luters friend, Philip Melanchthon

Twelve Articles

Condemned lay and ecclesiastical lords and summarized the agrarian crisis of the early sixteenth century.

Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants

A tract written by Luther. "Let everyone who can smite, slay, and stab the peasants, secretly and openly, remembering that nothing can be more poisonous, hurtful or devilish than a rebel."

Hapsburg dynasty

A family that controlled Spain, part of Italy, and part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was extremely powerful until the Thirty Years' War

Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. He was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not soley focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.

Appeal to the Nobility of the German Nation

Luther discussed devout laypeople and churchmen call on the German princes to reform the church

Peace of Augsburg

Ended the religious wars. The division of Christianity was formally acknowledged, with Lutheranism granted equal legal standing with Catholicism.

John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)

The Institutes of the Christian Religion

John Calvin's publication that was the cornerstone of his theology; provided the belief in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity


theological principle that God determined man's salvation at the beginning of time

Michael Servetus

Spanish humanist; gained notoriety for his publications denying the Christian dogma of the Trinity; burned at the stake


Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion, baptism, and entry into the Christian community

Henry VIII

English king who broke away from the Catholic Church and started the Church of England

Counter Reformation

Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation to the Protestant Heresy. Goals included restoring prestige and honour to the Holy See in Rome and bring heretics back in line by use of the inquisition and the index of forbidden books.

Pope Paul III

He promised to summon a council for reform if he was elected pope after the death of Pope Clement VII. Roman aristocrat, humanist, and astrologer, Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent during the Catholic reformations and the Inquisition in Papal Italy. Noted for ending plurism, secret marriages, and attacking corruption.

Council Of Trent/Tridentum/Tridentine Catholicism

A Church Council that was innitiated by Pope Paul III, During the Counter Reformation. It was called to reform the Holy Mother Church and reconcile Protestants but their rejection of Her teachings made this immpossible. The Clergy of the Holy Roman Empire were divided, weakening the Council. Success was made, however, in reafirming core Christian beliefs and ending much corruption, notably an end to plurism, secret marriage, and increased stress on the value of lay people.

St. Teresa of Avila

A women from Spain who joined a Carmelite Convent in Avila but did not approve of the wordly situation in the convent. Under orders from Christ the LORD, she reformed the convent, practicing poverty, notably removing shoes and not accepting rent, and keeping strict enclosure to keep the enviorment 'pure.' She serves as an example to many in the Holy Mother Church in regards to humility and adaptation without losing oneself.

Martin Luther

German theologian and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church (1521). Luther confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church.

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