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Part 2


group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities


organism's capacity to grow or thrive when subjected to an unfavorable environmental factor


climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area


dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rainforest trees


layer in a rain forest formed by shorter trees and vines


tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year


trees producing seed-bearing cones and have thin leaves shaped like needles


material formed from decaying leaves and other decaying matter


biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw


layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra


tiny, free-floating organisms that occur in aquatic ecosystems


algae and other small, photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean and forming parts of plankton


tiny animals that form part of the plankton


ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year


wetland formed where rivers meet the ocean


particles of organic matter that provide food for organisms at the base of an estuary's food web

salt marsh

temperate-zone estuary dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the low-tide line and by seagrasses under water

mangrove swamp

coastal wetland dominated by mangroves, salt-tolerant woody plants

photic zone

well-lit upper layer of the oceans

aphotic zone

permanently dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone


prominant horizontal banding of organisms that live in a particular habitat

coastal ocean

marine zone that extends from the lowtide mark to the end of the continental shelf

kelp forest

coastal ocean community named for its dominant organism kelp, a giant brown alga

coral reef

diverse and productive environment named for the coral animals that make up its primary structure


organisms that live attached to or near the ocean floor

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