Ch. 15,16 Bio 202 test
Terms in this set (72)
What transports oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs, and back to the heart.
Transports oxygen-rich blood from the heart to all the body cells, back to the heart. Blood delivers nutrients to cells, and removes wastes.
The base of the heart lies?
5th intercostal space
The apex of the heart lies at the?
Attacks the outer layer of the diaphragm.
Deep to the fibrous pericardium, outer layer of the serious membranes.
Inner layer of the serious membrane; attached to the surface of the heart; also called the epicardium.
Heart valves are comprised of?
Has papillary and chordae tendineae
Does not have papillary or chordae tendineae
Left and Right coronary arteries
Supplies blood to the tissues of the heart.
The first 2 branches of the aorta
Decreased blood flow.
The closing of the valves
The "Lubb" sound
Closing of the A-V valves
The "Dubb" sound
Associated with the closing of the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves.
Abnormal heart sound derived from incomplete closure of cusps of a valve
Cardiac Muscle fibers form A mass of merging cells that function as a unit.
Located in the superior lateral wall of the right atrium
Which of the following directly impact veins
Hold most of the blood in the body
Deposits of cholesterol plaque form in inner lining of walls of arteries.
A bulge in the wall of an artery, formed when blood pressure dilates a weakened area of the vessel; can burst wall of artery.
Venous blood flow
Only partly a direct result of heart action. also dependent on skeletal muscle contraction, breathing movements, Vasoconstriction.
Who has my yeti cup?
A vast collection of cells and biochemicals that travel in lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic capillaries that absorb fats, and transport them to the blood.
Drains into the left subclavian
Drains into the right subclavian
Has about the same composition as blood plasma. Contains water and dissolved nutrients, gases, hormones.
What is too large to pass trough the capillaries
What is excess accumulation of tissue fluids
muscles activity, respiration, contraction of skeletal muscle.
What filters pathogens from the lymph
The indented region of a lymph node
The exit of the lymph node
Primary function of a lymph node
filter potentially harmful particles from lymph
Monitor body fluids via macrophages and lymphocytes
produced in the thymus
hormones produced in thymus; stimulates T cell maturation
Largest lymphatic organ
Spleen tissue types
White pulp and red pulp
What causes disease and infection?
General defenses, protect against many types of pathogens
Known as immunity.
More specific and precise, targeting specific antigens.
carried out by lymphocytes that recognize certain foreign molecules
Block viral replication, act against growth tumors, stimulates phagocytosis.
Is a group of proteins in plasma and other body fluids that stimulate inflammation, attracts phagocytes and enhance phagocytosis
Secreted to split the cell membranes of pathogens
non-self molecules that can elicit an immune response
Cellular immune response
performed by immune cells (T cell lymphocytes - attack directly)
Humoral immune response
performed by antibodies (B cell - form antibodies)
First line of defense
Second line of defense
Third line of defense
are small molecules that are not antigenic by themselves, but when combine with large molecules in the body, they can evoke an immune response.
produced in the red bone marrow
What is differentiated in the thymus?
T cell can secrete polypeptides, which enhance some cellular responses to antigens
APC phagocytizes antigens, digests it, and displays antigenic fragments on its own cell membrane, bound to protein.
Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
T cell activation requires that antigenic fragments be attached to what?
A polypeptide that enhances cellular response
Antibody secreting cell
Is the most abundant
involved with allergic reaction
Primary immune response
produced by first encounter with antigen; first antibody appear 5-10 days, memory B cells are produced
Secondary immune response
Subsequent exposure to antigen produce high concentration of antibodies in 1-2 days; antibodies remain for months or years; memory b cells live for many years
Immunity resulting in vaccine
Antibodies passed to fetus from the pregnant mother
Type 1 hypersensitivity
Allergy, occurs minutes after contact, symptoms can be life-threatening
Type 2 hypersensitivity
Antigens bind to specific cells, blood transfusions
Our own tissue is attacked by our own immune system.
What attacked helper cells
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