Ch. 15,16 Bio 202 test

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Terms in this set (...)

Pulmonary Circuit
What transports oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs, and back to the heart.
Systemic Circuit
Transports oxygen-rich blood from the heart to all the body cells, back to the heart. Blood delivers nutrients to cells, and removes wastes.
2nd rib
The base of the heart lies?
5th intercostal space
The apex of the heart lies at the?
Fibrous Pericardium
Attacks the outer layer of the diaphragm.
Parietal pericardium
Deep to the fibrous pericardium, outer layer of the serious membranes.
Visceral pericardium
Inner layer of the serious membrane; attached to the surface of the heart; also called the epicardium.
Endocardium
Heart valves are comprised of?
A-V valves
Has papillary and chordae tendineae
Semilunar valves
Does not have papillary or chordae tendineae
Left and Right coronary arteries
Supplies blood to the tissues of the heart.
Coronary arteries
The first 2 branches of the aorta
Ischemia
Decreased blood flow.
Heart sound
The closing of the valves
The "Lubb" sound
Closing of the A-V valves
The "Dubb" sound
Associated with the closing of the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves.
Murmur
Abnormal heart sound derived from incomplete closure of cusps of a valve
Functional Syncytium
Cardiac Muscle fibers form A mass of merging cells that function as a unit.
SA node
Located in the superior lateral wall of the right atrium
Heart action
Which of the following directly impact veins
Systemic veins
Hold most of the blood in the body
Atherosclerosis
Deposits of cholesterol plaque form in inner lining of walls of arteries.
Aneurysm
A bulge in the wall of an artery, formed when blood pressure dilates a weakened area of the vessel; can burst wall of artery.
Venous blood flow
Only partly a direct result of heart action. also dependent on skeletal muscle contraction, breathing movements, Vasoconstriction.
Logan
Who has my yeti cup?
Lymphatic system
A vast collection of cells and biochemicals that travel in lymphatic vessels
Lacteals
Lymphatic capillaries that absorb fats, and transport them to the blood.
Thoracic duct
Drains into the left subclavian
Right lymphatic
Drains into the right subclavian
Tissue fluids
Has about the same composition as blood plasma. Contains water and dissolved nutrients, gases, hormones.
Plasma proteins
What is too large to pass trough the capillaries
Edema
What is excess accumulation of tissue fluids
Lymph flow
muscles activity, respiration, contraction of skeletal muscle.
lymph nodes
What filters pathogens from the lymph
Hilum
The indented region of a lymph node
Efferent
The exit of the lymph node
Primary function of a lymph node
filter potentially harmful particles from lymph
immune surveillance
Monitor body fluids via macrophages and lymphocytes
T cells
produced in the thymus
Thymosins
hormones produced in thymus; stimulates T cell maturation
Spleen
Largest lymphatic organ
Spleen tissue types
White pulp and red pulp
Pathogen
What causes disease and infection?
Innate defenses
General defenses, protect against many types of pathogens
Adaptive defenses
Known as immunity.
More specific and precise, targeting specific antigens.
carried out by lymphocytes that recognize certain foreign molecules
Interferons
Block viral replication, act against growth tumors, stimulates phagocytosis.
Complement
Is a group of proteins in plasma and other body fluids that stimulate inflammation, attracts phagocytes and enhance phagocytosis
Perforin's
Secreted to split the cell membranes of pathogens
Antigens
non-self molecules that can elicit an immune response
Cellular immune response
performed by immune cells (T cell lymphocytes - attack directly)
Humoral immune response
performed by antibodies (B cell - form antibodies)
First line of defense
Mechanical barriers
Second line of defense
Chemical barriers
Third line of defense
Immunity
Haptens
are small molecules that are not antigenic by themselves, but when combine with large molecules in the body, they can evoke an immune response.
B cell
produced in the red bone marrow
T cell
What is differentiated in the thymus?
Cytokines
T cell can secrete polypeptides, which enhance some cellular responses to antigens
MHC
APC phagocytizes antigens, digests it, and displays antigenic fragments on its own cell membrane, bound to protein.
Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
T cell activation requires that antigenic fragments be attached to what?
Cytokine
A polypeptide that enhances cellular response
Plasma cell
Antibody secreting cell
IgG
Is the most abundant
IgE
involved with allergic reaction
Primary immune response
produced by first encounter with antigen; first antibody appear 5-10 days, memory B cells are produced
Secondary immune response
Subsequent exposure to antigen produce high concentration of antibodies in 1-2 days; antibodies remain for months or years; memory b cells live for many years
Artificially acquired
Immunity resulting in vaccine
naturally passive
Antibodies passed to fetus from the pregnant mother
Type 1 hypersensitivity
Allergy, occurs minutes after contact, symptoms can be life-threatening
Type 2 hypersensitivity
Antigens bind to specific cells, blood transfusions
Autoimmunity
Our own tissue is attacked by our own immune system.
HIV
What attacked helper cells