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The Critical Era (1783-1801)

Franco-American Alliance (1778)

Alliance formed after battle of Saratoga. Neither side sign peace treaty without others consent, fight war until U.S. is independent.

Lord North

Great Britain Prime Minister who tried to stop France and U.S. alliance

Treaty of Paris (1783)

U.S. recognized as independent, fishing rights, loyalists compensated, end to formal hostilities

John Jay, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson (without France)

Negotiators (with Britain) of the Treaty of Paris (1783)

The Critical Era



Fundamental change in social or economic situation, political organization, overthrow of one leader for another

Articles of Confederation (1781-87)

Executive committee appointed by Congress, States had all the power, 9/13 to pass bill, unanimous to amend, NO Bill of Rights

Under Confederation Congress could...

make trade agreements, conduct war, negotiate treaties, barrow money/coin money/sell bonds

Barbary Pirates

Paid off by Britain (tribute), attacked U.S. ships and stole cargo since no tribute paid

Land Ordinance (1785)

NW Territory, surveyed and divided land into sections (36 secs, 1 sec = 640 acres, 1$/acre)

Northwest Ordinance (1787)

Area established as state when 5000 white males lived there (could elect legislature and govt appointed congress), with 60,000 could write constitution

Shays' Rebellion

W. Mass. farmers barred 2/3 tax burden, foreclosures (debtor prison), farmers try shutting down courts to accept paper money, tax relief passed

Riot Act

Suspends Habeas Corpus

Habeas Corpus

Right to know why you're arrested

Local View

feared powerful central govt and tyranny (Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Sam Adams)

National View

Articles weak, feared the people (George Washington, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Hamilton, Madison)

Annapolis Meeting (1786)

Discussion of trade between states, George Washington president of convention, created new constitution

Virginia Plan

Bicameral legislature, Representatives based on population, executive chosen by legislature, amendments by people

Bicameral legislature

one house by the people, one by state legislature

New Jersey Plan

Unicameral legislature, congress appoints executive, levy taxes

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