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Social Psychology Exam 2 Ch. 5, 6 & 7
Terms in this set (63)
The Self: Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context
The overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes.
independent view of the self
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people.
interdependent view of the self
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's relationships to other people, recognizing that one's behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others.
The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives.
The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values.
Theories about the causes of one's own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture (e.g., "absence makes the heart grow fonder")
reasons-generated attitude change
Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one's attitudes; people assume that their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize.
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs.
The desire to engage in an activity because of internal rewards or pressures, not because of external rewards of pressures.
The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting.
The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons.
Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done.
Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task.
The idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change.
The idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow.
two-factor theory of emotion
The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it.
misattribution of arousal
The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do.
social comparison theory
The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people.
upward social comparison
Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability.
downward social comparison
Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability.
The process whereby people adopt another person's attitudes.
People's predictions about how they will in response to a future emotional event.
The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen.
The process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status.
The strategy whereby people create obstacles and and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves.
Peoples evaluations of their own self-worth-that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent.
terror management theory
The theory that holds that self-esteem serves as a buffer, protecting people from terrifying thoughts about their own mortality.
The combination of excessive self-love and lack of empathy toward others.
The Need to Justify Our Actions: The Costs and Benefits of Dissonance Reduction
The discomfort that people feel when two cognitions (beliefs, attitudes) conflict, or when they behave in ways that are inconsistent with their conception of themselves.
In the context of dissonance theory, a way of reducing dissonance by reminding oneself of one or more of one's positive attributes.
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of one's emotional reactions to future negative events.
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives.
An unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently, the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price.
A reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside of the individual (e.g., to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment).
The reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (e.g., one's attitude or behavior).
Stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude.
The dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals devaluing the forbidden activity or object.
A long-lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification.
A arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the inconsistency between wheat they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead individuals to more responsible behavior.
Attitudes and Attitude Change: Influencing Thoughts and Feelings
Evaluations of people, objects, and ideas.
cognitively based attitude
An attitude based primarily on people's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object.
affectively based attitude
An attitude based more on people's feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object.
The phenomenon whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus that does not, until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus.
The phenomenon whereby behaviors we freely choose to perform become more or less frequent, depending on whether they are followed by a reward or punishment.
behaviorally based attitude
An attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an object.
Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report.
Attitudes that exist outside of conscious awareness.
The strength of the association between an attitude object and a person's evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object.
theory of planned behavior
The idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control.
A message advocating a particular side of an issue.
yale attitude change approach
The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on the source of the communication, the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience.
elaboration likelihood model
A model explaining two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitudes change: centrally, when people are motivated and how the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics.
central route to persuasion
The case in which people have both the ability and the motivation to elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments presented.
peripheral route to persuasion
The case in which people do not elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by more superficial cues.
Persuasive message that attempts to change people's attitudes by arousing their fears.
heuristic-systematic model of persuasion
An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: either systematically processing the merits of the arguments or using mental shortcuts or heuristics.
Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence judgements, attitudes, and behaviors.
Societal beliefs-such as those conveyed by media and other sources-regarding how men and women are expected to act.
Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small does of the arguments against their position.
The idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of resistance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the prohibited behavior.
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