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Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Terms in this set (30)
What are the 5 essential aspects of critical thinking
Dispositions, Criteria, Argument, Reasoning, Point of View
Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded, value fair-mindedness, respect evidence and reasoning, respect clarity and precision, look at different points of view, and will change positions when reason leads them to do so.
You need to have conditions that must be met for something to be judged as believable. Although arguments can be made that each subject area has different criteria, some standards apply to all subjects. An assertion must be based on relevant, accurate facts; based on credible sources; precise; unbiased; free from logical fallacies; logically consistent; and strongly reasoned.
Is a statement or proposition with supporting evidence. Critical thinking involves identifying, evaluating, and constructing arguments.
The ability to infer a conclusion from one or multiple premises. To do so requires examining logical relationships among statements or data.
Define Point of View
Good critical thinkers do their best to recognize their own point of view and consider and even understand and empathize with the view of others on an issue. Empathy is not a characteristic of a "soft" officer; rather it is a characteristic of smart, thoughtful and reflective officers.
Define Decision Making
a process of identifying and evaluating choices
Give an example of Pitfalls and Traps
Ex. relying on your "gut instincts" but were fooled by the unconscious decision making traps we fall into when trying to figure out what to do
unconscious routines used in decision making
influencing someone's answer based on previous questions
1. Is the population of Turkey greater than 35 million?
2. What's your best estimate of Turkey's population?
Three Key ways to reduce Anchoring
Be open minded
Offer objective information
Don't characterize the situation
Define The Status Quo Trap
sticking with what seems familiar to protect yourself from potential damage- avoiding putting in more effort
Define The Justify-Past-Actions Trap
utilizing past decisions/actions to justify what you should do in similar situations
*focus on your desirable outcome!!
What are Inferences?
conscious thought process that draws a conclusion based on the interpretation of assumptions (can be good or bad)
What are Assumptions?
an explicit conscious statement of belief or a subconscious belief taken for granted
Define Vagueness and Ambiguity
having at least two specific meanings that make sense in context, being vague in meaning if it is not clear in context
Opinion versus Fact
distinguish between opinions versus facts. Opinions = biases/anchors
Define Critical Thinking
the disciplined art of ensuring that you are using the best thinking you are capable of in any set of circumstances
purposeful and directed thought
Four Strategies for Clarifying your thinking
1. State one point at a tie
2. Elaborate on what you mean
3. Give examples that connect your thoughts to life experiences
4. use analogies and metaphors to help people connect your ideas to a variety of things they already understand
What is the most important element of critical thinking?
Define Emotional Intelligence
is the ability to recognize your emotions, understand what they're telling you, and realize how your emotions affect people around you
your perception of others
5 characteristics of Emotional Intelligence
-understanding of ones emotions, and because of this, they don't let their feelings rule them
-confident because they trust their intuition and do not let their emotions get out of control
-willing to take an honest look at themselves
-Knowledge of ones strengths and weaknesses and they work on these areas so they can perform better
-Belief that this self-awareness is the most important part of emotional intelligence
the ability to control emotions and impulses
willingness to defer immediate results for long-term success, being highly productive, love a challenge, and very effective in whatever they do
the ability to identify with and understand the wants, needs, and viewpoints of those around you
having the ability to talk with others
is a theory that people possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways
List 8 Intelligence Styles
Linguistic Intelligence (word smart)
Logical-mathematical intelligence (number/reasoning smart)
Musical intelligence (music smart)
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (body smart)
Visual-Spatial Intelligence (picture smart)
Interpersonal Intelligence (people smart)
Intrapersonal Intelligence (self smart)
Naturalist Intelligence (nature smart)
Problem Solving Process
1. Define the Problem
2. Brainstorm initial ideas for solving the problem
3. identify known facts
4. identify what you need to know
5. Develop an action plan
6. implement and monitor the plan
7. Evaluate the process
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