The coelom serves as a __________ by contracting muscles to push against the tube of fluid
True coelom is a __________-__________ body cavity completely lined by ___________
Tube with in a tube bodyplan:
___________- outer tube
___________- inner tube
What is the flame cell and what does it do?
function in osmoregulation and disposal of metabolic waste
also first kidney like organ
Schistosoma is a
What type of disease do they cause
Where do they live
The blood fluke turns into a _________ larva then grows into a ___________larva
The formation of the head increases the effectiveness of the animal to
actively find food, shelter, and mates
Mollusca has ____________ fertilization, ______ circulatory system, and ______ ________ on the mouth
H₂O goes in through the clam by an __________________ and out by ____________________
Gastropoda undergoes torsion which means
they twist their visceral mass as a larva making their anul opening behind their head
The phylum Gastropoda is a ________ coelomate, has an _______ circulatory system, and a ________ for locomotion
Movement of Bivalvia
Oysters and barnacles-
clams and muscles-
burrow in the sand/mud
snapping motion of shells
Bivalvia have a __________ gut, ________ circulatory system, and __________ ganglion by the foot
Octopods have both ___________, cells for colour, and ______________, which change the texture and colour
Nematoda are roundworms whose body is covered by a tough________ that helps prevent
Arthropoda are segmented with jointed appendages and have an armorlike ___________ made of _______
Arthropoda have an _____ circulatory system, and either ________, for gas exchange, or __________/book lungs
Suppose the following DNA sequence was mutated from AGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGA to AGAAGAGAGATCGAGAGA. What amino acid sequnce will be generated based on this muated DNA?
Which statement is true?
The Hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base
Of all the different codons that exist, three of them
do not specify a particular amino acid but provide instruction such as stop
The first event in translation of eukaryotes (staring with methionine) is the
base pairing of tRNA to AUG of the mRNA
Which point mutation would be mos tlikely to have a catastrophic effect on the functioning of a protein
a base deletion near the start of the codin sequence
Following peptide bond formation between the amino acid in the A site on the ribosome and the growing polypeptide chain, the tRNA in the A Site`
moves to the P site of the ribosome
If a human gene mRNA were placed into a cell of yeast, it would be:
translated into the protein that is found in humans
How is the four-letter language of nucleic acids converted into the 20-word language of amino acids
The 4 Nucleic acid bases combine in 3- letter sequences that define different amino acids.
Why is only one strand of DNA transcribed into mRNA
because transcribing both DNA strands would produce different amino acid sequences.
A particular eukaryotic protein is 300 amino acids long. WHich of the following could be the number of nucleotides in the DNA that codes for this protein
Must be recognized by ribosomes, must have an anticodon, must have an atttachment site for the amino acid, must be recognized by a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that adds the correct amino acid
A possible sequence of nucleotides in DNA that would code for the polypeptide sequences Phe- Leu- Ile- Val would be
Interrupted coding sequence include long sequences of base that do not code for amino acids. These noncoding sequences, called ___, are found in __ cells.
introns and eukaryotic
A gene can now be defined as:
a DNA sequence that carries info to produce a specific RNA or protein product
If the triplet UUU codes for the amino acid phenylalanine in bacteria, then in plants UUU should code for
A gene mutation
is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, may be caused by enviromentral agents, may aruse spontaneously, can occur in all organisms
Substitution of one base pair for another can result in a _____ mutation that results in the conversion of an amino acid specifying codon to a termination codon
If cytosine makes up 22% of the nucleotides in a sample of DNA from an organism, then adnine would make up waht % of the bases
A person with AIDS usually dies of a disease that an HIV negative person would have immunity against. This is because.
AIDS patient's white blood cells that fight invaders have been destroyed
are usually species-specific, may have multiple origins, are probably related to mobile genetics elements, may have escaped from cells.
Viruses were first identified:
because they caused an infection and were small enough to pass through filters that trapped bacteria
Retroviruses differ from other RNA viruses by:
having revere transcriptase instead of RNA- dependent RNA polymerase.
A symptom of a transmissible spnogiform encephalopathy (TSE) is
degeneration of the brain and central nervrous system
Which of the following would a physician NOT do to protect against the spread of a viral disease?
prescribe an antibitotic
The five stages of a lytic infection are attachment, penetration, ____, assembly, and release.
The specificity of viruses to different types of cells is due to ____ sites on the host cell
Tobacco mosaic virus
Is able to be crystallized, cause disease in tobacco plants, is smaller than a bacterium, was discovered in 1835.
EBOLA is a deadly virus identified first in the country of ZAIRE. The host for this disease is:
Antibiotics are not effective against viruses becayse
viruses dont have the cellular processes that antibiotics interfere with
members of phylum ___ are the most primitive of the fungi and were perviously calssified as protist
One ancestral characterisitc remaining in representatives of the chytridiomycetes is:
Most fungal spores are ___ reproductive cells that are produced ____.
nonmotile; sexually or asexually
A fungus that forms a __ within th eouter layers of human skin is the cause of athlete's foot.
lichens are most typically formed by the symbiotic assoscation of an alga or cyanobacterium and:
Gram positive bacteria react to which of the following, whereas gram-negative bacteria do not?
presence of a chemical stain
Which of the following can bacteria use as an energy source?
hydrogen sulfide, nitrites, sunlight, ammonia
In what way does bacterial binary fission resemble eukarytoic mitosis
genetically identical daughter cells
Traditionally, bacteria have been grouped on the basis of all but which one of the following
mode of nutrition, pathogenicity or nonpathogenicity
The reproduction of microorganisms is self-limiting because
the accumulation of waste products can be toxic, the supply of nutrients may run out, and other organsims may prey on them
are self-reproducing circular molecules of DNA, are sites for inserting gene for amplification, may be transferred between different species of bacteria, may confer the ability to donate genetic material when bacteria conjugate
When a DNA molecule containing a wrong base at one location in one strand is replicated:
The mutation is corrected by the DNA polymerase enzyme
In the experiments of Griffith, the conversion of non-lethal r-strain bacteria to lethal S-strain bacteria:
was an example of the genetic exchange known as transfromation
The information carried by DNA is incorporated in a code specifed by the:
specific nucleotide sequence of the DNA molecule
How is a single strand of DNA able to serve as a template for the synthesis of another strand?
Nucleotides pair with those of the original strand to form a new strand, hydrogen bonds holding the two strands together are ease to break, allowing one strand
Which statement is true?
The hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base?
James Watson and Francis Crick
established double stranded nature of DNA, established the principle of base pairing, explaind how DNA's structure permitted it to be replicated, propsed the concept of the double helix
How are the chromosomes of a eukaryote cell replicated
The linear DNA molecules are replicated from multiple origins of replication
is an enzyme, adds new nucleotides to a strand, proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct, derives energy from ATP for synthesis of DNA strands
The bacteriophages used in Alfred Hershey's and Martha Chase's experiments showed that:
DNA was injected into bacteria
Chargaff determined that DNA from any source contains about the same amount of guanine as ____
THe Site on replicating DNA molecule at which the old strands are being separated is known as
DNA has two functions: it can self-replicate and it can make non-DNA molecules. DNA is capable of thse because
it nucleotides will form base pairs with both ribose and deoxyribose nucleotides
Why is DNA able to store large amounts of information?
its nucleotides can be arranged in a large number of possible sequences
The first experimenter(s) to use griffth's transfromation experiment to identify the genetic material in bacteria was
Which of the following nucleotide sequences represents the complement to the DNA strand- AGATCCG?
The final product of DNA replication is:
two molecules, each of which contains one new and one old DNA strand
The two molecules that alternate to form the backbone of a polynucleotide chain are:
sugar and phosphate
Which of the following best describes semiconservative replication?
A DNA molecule consists of one parental strand and one new strand
The significance of Fred Griffith's experiments in which he used two strains of Streptococu pneumoniae is that
it demostranted that harmless cell shad become permanetly transfomed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system
Which of the following is not an enviromental role of protists?
protists are from large amounts of cellulose
The process in which two paramecia come together after meiosis to exchange parts of their genetic material is called
A person who comes downwith malaria can infer that he or she contracted it from
the bite of a mosquito carrying Plasmodium
Which of the following disease spread by the tsetse fly does the protozoan known as Trypanosoma cause?
African sleeping sickness
You have been given an unkown organism to identify. You find that it is unicellular and has mitochondira.
pseudopodia and cilia: locomostion structures:: food and contractile : vacuoles in Paramecia
food and contractile : vacuoles in Paramecia
An amoeba moves and feeds by extending a temporary extenstion of its cytoplasm called a
The symptoms of malaria
include headache and fatigue, follow a cycle, include severe chills and fever
The process in which two paramecia come together after meiosis to exchange parts of their genetic material i scalled
If a marine invertebrate were placed into freshwater, it would have difficulty surviving because:
it would have difficulty with osmoregulation
Although corals can capture prey, they also depend on ___ for nutrition
a symbiotic relationship with the photosynthetic zooxanthellae
A major differencebetween the development of invertebrates and that of vertebrates is that
most invertebrates undergo indirect development, while most vertebrates undergo direct development
Which of the following attributes is not used to characterize animals?
none of the above.. all of the attributes are typical of animals
Which statement best supports why animals most likely evolved in the ocean
They did not require a skeleton for support, reproduction was independent of internal fertilization, the effects of gravity were minimal, osmoregulation was not difficult
All but which of the following statements are true? - Kingdom Animalia
All of these statements are true.
Creeping behavior and a mouth located towaard the head end of the body may have led, in some evolutionary lines, to
concentration of sense organs in the head region
Determinate cleavage takes place in ____ adn is characterized by a pattern of development where the ultimate fate of each cell is
protostomes; fixed early in the developmental process
is cahracterized by the concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior end
Most sponges are __ meaning that one individual can produce both male and female gametes
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the largest phylum of invertebrates, the arthropods
all of the above are characteristics of the arthropods
Which of the following words are incorrectly paired- Kingdom animalia
May animals have a head that is located at the _____ end of their body and a tail that is located at the ____ end of their body
Which of the following represents the posible genotype(s
) resulting from a cross between two individuals that are heterozygous (Bb)
BB, Bb, and bb
In radishes, red and white are the pure-breeding colors and long and round are the pure- breeding shapes, while the hybrids are purple and oval. The F2 generations of a cross between long and white and red and round will produce
Purple round, purple long, whit oval, and red oval offsprings in equal numbers as wells as other phenotypes
WHat is the probability that two lizards that are heterozygous for tripes on their tails (Ss) will produce an offspring that is homozygous for no stripes (ss)?
Which of the following represents the possible genotype resulting from a cross between and individual homozygous for black hair (BB) and an individual homozygous for blond hair (bb)?
In Chihuahuas, black coat color (b) is dominant over red (b), and solid color (s) is dominant over spotted (s). A cross of Bb Ss with bb ss would produce the phenotypic ratio
Two Martians fall in love and marry. One martian is homozygous for red eyes and the other is heterozygous. The recessive eye color is purple. What are the chances that the alian couple will have a child with red eyes?
What use the possible phenotypes of the children if their mother has Type A blood and the father has type AB blood?
A, B, AB
An incompletely dominant gene controls the color of chickens so that BB produces black, Bb procues a slate-gray color called blue, annd bb produces splashed white. A second gene controls comb shaped, with the dominant gene R producing a rose comb and r producing a single comb. If a pure- breeding black chicken with a rose comb is mated to a splashed white chicken witha single comb in the F2 generation, What fraction of the offspring will be blue with rose comb?
Susan, a mother with type B blood has a child with type O blood. She claims that Craig who was type A blood is the father. He claims that he cannot possible be the father. Furhter blood test ordered by the judge reveal that craig is AA. The judge rules that
Craig is right and does not have to pay child support
Two martians fell in love and marry. One martian is homozygous for red eyes and the other is heterozygous. The recessive eye color is purple. What is the probability that hey will have a child with purple eyes.
What are the predirected phenotypes of the male children from the union of a woan who is heterozygous for hemophilia and a man who has normal blood clotting characteristics
1 hemophilia: 1 normal
Breeding a yellow dog with a brown dog produced puppies with both yellow and brown hairs intermixed.. this is an example of
Mating an idicidual expressing a dominant phenotype but whose genotype is unkown, with an individual expressing the corresponding recessive phenotype is an example of
a test cross
In humans, assume that brown eyes id dominant and blue eyes is recessive. If two brown- eyed individuals have a child with blue eyes, that means
both parents are heterozygous for eye color
The proability that two genes will be separated by crossing over is related to
the distance between the two genes on the chromosome
In red (RR) is crossed with white (rr) and produces a pink flower (Rr), and tall D is dominant to dwarf (d), the F2 phenotypic ratio from a cross of RR dd with rr DD would be
Which of the following represents the possible genotypes resulting from a cross between and individual homozygous (BB) and one heterozygous (Bb) individual?
BB and Bb
An incompletely dominant gene controls the color of chickens so that BB produces black, Bb procues a slate-gray color called blue, annd bb produces splashed white. A second gene controls comb shaped, with the dominant gene R producing a rose comb and r producing a single comb. If a pure-bredding black chicken with a rose comb is mated to a splashed white chicken with a single comb in F2 generation, what fraction of the offspring will be blue with single comb
In radishes, red and white are the pure breeding colors and long and round are the pure bredding shapes while the hybrids are purple and oval. The cross of a red oval with a pruple oval will produce all but which of the following phenotpes
white and long
In Mendel's time, most people believed that
the characteristics of parents were blended in the offspring
Using standard conventions for naming alleles, which of the following pairs is correct
Mendel verified true-bredding pea plants for certain traits before undertaking his experiments. The term "true-breeding" refers to:
genetically pure lines
Short hair (L) is dominant to long hair (l). If a short-haired animal of unknown origin is crossed with a long haired animal and they produce one long-haired and one short-haired offspring, this would indicate that
the short-haired animal was not pure-breeding
What are the possible genotypes of a female child from the union of a woman who is heterozygous for hempphilia and a man who was normal blood clotting characteristics
XHXH or XHX
What are the possible phenotypes of the cildren if the mother;s genotype is AO for blood type and the father is BO?
A, B, AB, O
In cocker spaniels, black coat color (B) is dominat over red (b), and solid color (S) is dominat over spotted (s). If a red male was crossed with a black female to produce a red spoted puppy, the genotypes of the parents (with male genotype first) would be
bb Ss X Bb Ss
The height of pea plants from a cross between parent plants heterozygous for height, in which tail is dominan, would be
2 tall : 1 short
In radishes, red and white are the pure-breeding colors and long and round are the pure-bredding shapes, while the hybrids are purple and oval. The cross of a red long radish and a white round radish will produce an F2 generation in which
all of these
Two martians fall in love and marry. One martian is homozygous for red eyes and the other is heterozygous. The recessive eye color is purple. What i the probability that the alian coupe will have a child that is heterozygous for eye color?
In radishes, red and white are the pure-bredding colors and long and round are the pure bredding shapes while the hybrids are purple and oval. The cross of white oval and a purple oval will produce more
purple oval that purple long
In peas, Mendel found that tall plants are yellow peas are dominant. The phenotype for a pea plant with the genotype TtYy would be
tall with yellow peas
When certain medium height hybrid plants were crossed, they produces offspring that were dwarf, medium, and tall in a ration of 1:2:1 this is an example of:
a polygenic trait
The term "dominant" meants that:
the dominant phenotype shows up in 100% of the offsprings in all generations
Which of the following represents the possible genotypes resulting from a cross between and individual heterozygous (B) and one that is homozygous (bb)>
Bb, and bb
If a child belonged to blood type O, he or she could not have been produced by which set of parents>
Type AB mother type O father
An organism with the genotype of AaXx can produce gametes containing __ if the two genes are unlinked
either AX, Ax, aX, ax
___ are alternative forms of a gene that govern the same feature, such as eye color, and occupy corresponding positions on homologous chromosomes
Assume short hair (L) is dominant to long hair (l) and black hair (B) is dominant to brown (b). If you found a black short haird animal, you could determine its genotype by crossing it to an animal with a genotype of
the genotype for a pea plant that is omozyguys recessive for both height and pear color would be
Mating a true-bredding pink rose plant with a true-breeding pink rose plant will produce:
only plants with pink roses