Lecture - Chapter 5 - Part 2
Terms in this set (59)
What are some examples for Neutral Fats?
Fatty Acids, Saturated Fats, Unsaturated Fatty Acids, Phospholipids
What are fatty acids?
Long carbon chains with a carboxyl group
What are saturated fats?
Maximum number of hydrogen bonded to carbon atoms
What are unsaturated fatty acids?
Less than maximum number of hydrogen's bonded to carbons
What are Phospholipids?
Glycerol joined to two fatty acids and phosphate group with a negative charge
What do steroids have?
4 interlocking rings
What is an example of a steroid?
Cholesterol and sex hormones ;)
What elements make up Proteins?
C, H, O, N, and S
What is the monomer of Protein?
Amino Acids (20 different)
What are structural proteins?
What are storage proteins?
Storage for amino acids
What are transport proteins?
What are hormonal proteins?
Coordination of organism's activities
What are receptor proteins?
Response of cell to chemical stimuli
What are contractile proteins?
What are defensive proteins?
Protection against disease
What are enzymatic proteins?
Selective acceleration of chemical reactions
How many amino acids are in genetic code?
What varieties do Amino Acids come in?
Some are nonpolar/polar, some are hydrophobic/hydrophilic, some are polar side chains, some are electrically charged
What are polypeptides?
Amino Acid Polymers
What is the name of amino acids linked by covalent bonds?
What two types of endings do Polypeptides have?
Carboxyl end (C-terminus) or Amino end (N-terminus)
What is a Iysozyme?
Determines the shape of a protein
What is primary structure?
Linear sequence of amino acids
What determines primary structure?
What is secondary structure?
Localized folding of some amino acids in a polypeptide chain
What are the four levels of protein structure?
Primary, Secondary, Teritary, and Quaternary Structure
What is Tertiary structure?
The complete folding of one polypeptide chain
What is Quaternary structure?
The complete folding of two or more polypeptide chains to form a complete functional protein
What is hemoglobin?
Two alpha and two beta chains assembled
What is collagen?
When three polypeptides fold
What influences tertiary shape?
Hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and -S-S (disulfide bridge covalent bond)
What is sickle-cell disease?
Single amino acid substitution
What is the function of a sickle-cell hemoglobin?
Molecules crystallize into a fiber, which reduces it's capacity to carry oxygen
What is the cells shape of a sickle-cell hemoglobin?
A crescent moon
What is the function of a normal hemoglobin?
Molecules do not associate with one another; each carries oxygen
What is the cell shape of a normal hemoglobin?
A normal blood cell, circle
What causes denaturation and renaturation of a protein?
Changes in temperature of pH can break weak bonds
What help proteins fold?
Chaperonin or Chaperones
What do nucleic acids do?
Transmit hereditary information
What determines amino acid sequence?
Gene (sequence of DNA nucleotides)
What are Genes made of?
DNA, a nucleic acid
What are four major organic macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
What is a nucleotide?
A subunit (monomer) of Nucleic Acid (DNA or RNA)
What do nucleotides consist of?
5 carbon sugars (ribose RNA, deoxyribose DNA), a phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
What are the nitrogenous bases in DNA?
A, G, C, T
What are the nitrogenous bases in RNA?
A, G, C, U
What is pyrimidine nitrogenous base?
Single ring structure
What are the pyrimidine nitrogenous bases?
C, T, U
What structure is the purine nitrogenous base?
Double ring strucutre
What are the purine nitrogenous bases?
Is DNA double or single stranded? What sugar does it use?
Is RNA double or single stranded? What sugar does it us?
What are dinucleotides?
Carries of high energy electrons
What does cyclic AMP do?
Plays a role in intracellular signals
What extra elements are found in proteins?
What extra elements are found in nucleic acids?
What elements are found in all four organic molecules?
C, H, O
How do monomers turn into polymers?