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Psych Midterm 1 Practice Questions
Terms in this set (53)
When studying Consciousness scientifically, Dr He spoke about the "hard" problem and the "easy" problem. According to him, first person subjective experience is ___________________________________.
a. hard because the technology is still so new.
b. easy because people are conscious of their subjective experience.
c. hard because we don't know how to approach this problem.
d. easy because we know how to make the link from subjective experience to underlying neural activity.
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that consists of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands is called the ________ nervous system.
The central part of the retina, responsible for visual acuity, is the ______________.
a. feature detector
The ________ is the illusory perception of movement produced by the successive flashing of images.
a. trichromatic theory
b. monocular cue
c. phi phenomenon
d. binocular cue
When researchers are interested in studying the relationship between variables that cannot be manipulated they are likely to use which of the following methods?
a. naturalistic observation
b. correlational methods
c. experimental methods
d. case studies
The walleye is a species of fish that has many cones in its retina. Given this fact, a Psy 1001 scholar can predict that:
a. walleyes have good peripheral vision.
b. walleyes have excellent vision in dark and shaded lake conditions.
c. walleyes can see color.
d. walleyes are unable to see fine details.
The firing of a neuron is most similar to:
a. the increase in sunlight as the sun rises.
b. light coming on as a light switch is flipped.
c. a plane taking off or landing.
d. a bowl overflowing as more water slowly drips into it.
Abnormalities at norepinephrine and serotonin synapses appear to play a role in which of the following?
a. increased appetite
c. high anxiety
Damage to Wernicke's area is likely to affect which of the following?
a. ability to comprehend speech
b. ability to produce speech
c. ability to read
d. ability to identify where objects are
The fluid-filled space between the axon terminal of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell is called the ___________.
b. dendrite knob
c. receptor site
d. axon terminal
Generalizability (or external validity) is important because ______________________________________.
a. a study can't be reliable if findings of the study are not generalizable. Incorrect
b. lack of generalizability limits the number of researchers who can use a particular method.
c. if the sample on which the data was obtained is not representative of the population, then the researcher cannot claim that his findings generalize.
d. if you can't disprove a finding, then you have not used good scientific methodology
If you are shown the face of an angry man, you immediately know several things--this is a man, the man is angry--and you quickly start looking for the cause of his anger. This effortless thinking illustrates what Daniel Kahneman calls __________________.
a. system 2 thinking
b. system 1 thinking
c. heuristic thinking
d. analytical thinking
Attention to WHERE one is in space is processed in which area of the brain?
a. frontal lobe
b. occipital lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. parietal lobe
When a neurotransmitter is released, but it does not fit into a suitable receptor on the postsynaptic neuron _____________________________.
a. an inhibitory postsynaptic potential will be generated
b. the strength of the action potential in the presynaptic neuron will increase
c. the firing potential of the postsynaptic neuron will not be affected
d. an excitatory postsynaptic potential will be generated
As described in lecture, what is tetanus?
a. The difference in the magnitude of neural impulses between a low intensity response and a high intensity response.
b. A high-frequency stimulation to increase the ability of cell A to activate cell B.
c. A physiological response to a guilty conscience used in lie-detector tests.
d. Muscle spasms experienced as a side effect of heroin withdrawal.
As you drive along a rural highway, the speedometer on your car says you are going 70 mph, but a police officer pulls you over and informs you that you were really doing 90 mph. One month later, the same thing happens. You drive down the same highway, thinking you are going 70 mph, and the same officer pulls you over to say you were speeding. One possibility is that your car's speedometer is ___________ but not __________.
c. Reliable... valid
d. Valid .. reliable
As discussed in lectures, drugs work ___________________________________.
a. by stimulating the growth of spines on the neurons.
b. by increasing or weakening the magnitude of neural impulses
c. by increasing or decreasing the effectiveness of neurotransmitters in the synapse.
d. by stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system.
Individuals suffering from a particular disorder suffer a loss of attention, arousal and memory because they have a deficit of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. A researcher discovers a drug that acts as an agonist for acetylcholine. Based on what the lecturer explained about how drugs work at the synapse, one can predict that this new drug may prove to be __________ to individuals experiencing this disorder because _________________.
a. useless; because it blocks acetylcholine clearance
b. useful; because it mimics the effects of acetylcholine
c. useful; because it can increase the levels of acetylcholine in the synapse
d. useless; because it blocks acetylcholine receptors
Which of the following is a measure of central tendency?
d. standard deviation
Marcus is color-blind because he lacks cone receptors for wavelengths of light in the red spectrum. Marcus's inability to see the color red illustrates a deficit in the process of ______________________.
a. signal detection
You have been told that the average height of Psy 1001 students is 5'7". But the only Psy 1001 student you know personally is Alan who is 6'5" tall. Thus you assume the average height of Psy 1001 students must be wrong. What lesson from statistics have you failed to remember?
a. Be careful making inferences about individuals based on their group membership.
b. You can't make inferences about groups based on an individual observation.
c. "birds of a feather flock together"
d. "correlation does not equal causation"
If a play-by-play announcer describing each pitch during a baseball game fails to notice a naked fan running across the infield, the announcer would be demonstrating
a. perceptual constancy.
b. attentional blindness.
c. inattentional blindness.
d. perceptual set.
Transduction refers to
a. The inferences that the brain makes in the process of sensation and perception.
b. The process of converting environmental energy into neural information.
c. How the brain registers difference in intensity between two signals.
d. Interpreting neural information in the brain.
Dave is having his ears checked. Tones of varying frequencies are administered either to his left ear or to his right ear. A tone beeps in his left ear, and Dave reports that he did not hear the tone. According to signal detection theory, he has just had a ________________.
a. correct rejection
b. false alarm
As described in lecture, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that one brain area is particularly associated with episodic memory. One of these findings is that London taxi cab drivers_____________________________ the longer they have been driving:
a. have more activation in their hippocampus
b. have more activation in their amygdala
c. have less activation in their hippocampus
d. have less activation in their amygdala
A researcher is interested in studying aggression. In order to measure aggressiveness, he asks parents of nursery school children to rate how aggressive their child is, on a scale of 1 to 7. In this case, the rating that each parent gives his or her child is a __________________.
a. a psychological construct
b. a dependent variable
c. an independent variable
d. an operational definition
James claims that he can read minds, but he refuses to tell anyone what he has learned so there is no way to test whether his claim is true or false. Which of the six principles of scientific thinking best describes this situation?
a. Ruling out rival hypotheses
b. Correlation versus Causation
d. Occam's razor
The explanation for the split-brain effect, as described in lecture, is
a. After the corpus callosum is severed, brain functions are restored through plasticity.
b. when you sever the corpus callosum, emotional control is damaged and people lose the ability to "read" the emotions of others.
c. speech is located in the left hemisphere, and when you sever the corpus callosum, the two halves of the brain can no longer communicate.
d. in some people, the left hemisphere is dominant, and in others, the right hemisphere dominates.
As described in lecture, in a reflex response, sensory neurons carry the signal
a. directly to the thalamus, which activates the motor response.
b. to interneurons in the spine which both activates the motor reflex and simultaneously sends a report to the brain.
c. directly to the brain and the brain activates the motor response.
d. first to interneurons in the spine, which then relays the message to the brain and the brain activates the motor response.
The biological approach to psychology assumes that ______________________.
a. animals provide a sufficient model of human behavior
b. human behavior can be described in terms of the nervous system and brain
c. human behavior can be understood in terms of its adaptive value for the survival of the species
d. animals do not provide an adequate model for human behavior
When you look out your window, you see your neighbor walking towards you. Her image on your retina becomes "bigger," but you know that she is not actually growing bigger as she walks towards you. In your mind, she remains constant due to _____________.
a. color constancy
b. size constancy
c. shape constancy
d. lightness constancy
When an excitatory message reaches the dendrites, the cell becomes _________________ and the likelihood of a nerve impulse is ______________.
a. more negative...decreased
b. less negative... increased
c. less negative...decreased
d. more negative...increased
If you fell forward and hit your forehead very hard on a concrete sidewalk, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
a. hearing and understanding speech
b. tasting and smelling
c. seeing and speaking
d. reasoning and executive control
What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?
c. Pituitary gland
d. Endocrine system
Placebos are used in research to control for
a. nontreatment effects
b. the subjects' expectations about treatment
c. secondary drug effects
d. random fluctuations in the independent variable
Perhaps the greatest advantage associated with descriptive research methods is
a. a sensitivity to ethical concerns
b. the isolation of cause and effect linkages in behavior
c. the ability to focus on specific, isolated behaviors
d. the ability to explore questions that cannot be examined using experimental procedures
The fact that humans have three cone receptors, specialized for red, green and blue spectrum light waves, is consistent with which theory of color vision?
a. Bottom-up processing
b. Gestalt psychology
c. Trichromatic theory
d. Opponent process theory
Clever devices--the stereoscope, a virtual reality headset, the 3D glasses used to view the film "Coraline"--create the illusion of three-dimensions by taking advantage of the fact that the left eye and the right eye see objects from slightly different locations. This binocular depth cue is:
a. retinal disparity
b. aerial haze
d. linear perspective
An independent variable in an experiment refers to
a. the variable that is held constant across experimental conditions
b. the variable deliberately manipulated by the experimenter
c. the variable that the experimenter believes will change in value because of systematic correlations that exist in the experiment
d. the variable that provides an alternative explanation for the results of the experiment
Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called
a. rational-emotive therapy
b. behavior modification
d. primal therapy
Which of the following indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?
The absolute threshold is defined as the stimulus intensity that an organism can detect
a. 100% of the time.
b. 25% of the time.
c. 1% of the time.
d. 50% of the time.
Patient DF suffers from a severe form of visual agnosia after carbon monoxide poisoning. She is unable to consciously judge the orientation of a slot when asked to align a card and a slot, but she is still able to perform an action related task ("post the letter") which is consistent with which of the following statements?
a. Both the temporal lobe and the parietal lobe seem to be able to operate without conscious awareness.
b. The parietal lobe seems to be able to operate without conscious awareness.
c. The temporal lobe seems to be able to operate without conscious awareness.
d. Conscious awareness seems to be a function of speech.
What psychological school first identified that visual perception occurs in terms of whole objects rather than individual component parts?
After a stroke, Dorothy fails to pay attention to objects in her left visual field. When she draws a daisy, for example, she neglects to draw its left side. Neglect syndrome, the name for this condition, can result from damage to the ____________________.
a. front lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. occipital lobe
d. temporal lobe
Douglas believes that females are more polite and respectful than males. He easily recalls examples of this and constantly points out situations to others that support this belief. However, he often ignores evidence to the contrary. Douglas's belief about gender differences in socially appropriate behavior is maintained through
a. belief perseverance.
b. the confirmation bias.
c. the hindsight bias.
d. the representativeness heuristic.
The first full-fledged psychology laboratory was founded __________________.
a. by Wilhelm Wundt in 1892.
b. by William James in 1879.
c. by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879.
d. by William James in 1892.
According to your authors, laboratory research generalizes
a. poorly from college undergraduates to other groups of people in other settings.
b. poorly from experimental designs in the laboratory but well from correlational or naturalistic observation designs.
c. well from laboratory settings to the real world, but only when undergraduates are not used as participants.
d. well from laboratory settings to the real world and well from undergraduates to the general population.
Betty had been diagnosed with depression. In therapy, she was introduced to the idea (from feminist therapy theory) that depression can be the result of disempowering social forces. This concept was a revelation to Betty. Suddenly, many things in her life made sense, and she could feel her mood improve almost immediately. Betty's emotional response suggests which of the following ways of knowing?
A right-handed split-brain patient sees a daisy presented very briefly in his left visual field and a clock presented very briefly in his right visual field. Which of the following will occur?
a. the patient will say that he saw only the daisy
b. the patient will say that he saw both a daisy and a clock
c. the patient will say that he saw only the clock
d. the patient will not be aware that he has seen either daisy or clock
As discussed in lecture, antidepressants like the SSRIs work by
a. blocking dopamine receptors through the use of an antagonist
b. decreasing the amount of serotonin in the synapse
c. activating endorphins through the use of an agonist.
d. blocking serotonin clearance
The psychologist B. F. Skinner was most famous for his work in which of these approaches to psychology?
Fifteen minutes after Zigfried left the brightly lit hallway and entered the dark passageway, dark adaptation was
a. still taking place in both this rods and his cones
b. complete in his cones, but still taking place in his rods
c. complete in his rods, but still taking place in his cones
d. complete in both his rods and cones
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