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Sociology in Our Times Chapter 4
words in chapter 4
a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ ethnicity, age, and gender.
division of labor
how the various tasks of a society are divided up and performed.
the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation.
the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves.
Erving Goffman's term for the strategies we use to rescue our performance when we experience a potential or actual loss of face.
a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.
a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability. "Commune" or "community".
a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values. "Associations" like strangers.
impression management (presentation of self)
Erving Goffman's term for people's efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image.
a society based on technology that mechanizes production.
the most important status that a person occupies.
Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion in preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.
the transfer of information between persons without the use of speech.
Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.
the immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private.
a society in which technology supports a service and information-based economy.
Charles Horton Cooley's term for a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
a situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time.
a situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity.
a group's or society's definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played.
how a person actually plays a role.
a condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies.
a larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.
the situation in which a false belief or prediction produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.
social construction of reality
the process by which our perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience.
a group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence.
a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.
the process by which people act toward or respond to other people; the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.
the stable pattern of social relationships that exists within a particular group or society.
a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties.
all the statuses that a person occupies at a given time.
a material sign that informs others of a person's specific status.