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process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
one or two more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome
1. the inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units known as genes. Genes are passed from parents to their offspring
2. In cases in which two or more forms of the gene for a single trait exist, some forms of the gene may be dominant and others may be recessive.
3.sexually reproducing animals have two two copies of each gene - one from each parent. They segregate from each other when gametes are formed.
4. Alleles from different genes usually segregate from each other.
a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
consist of two complete set of chromosomes and two complete sets of genes
process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
results in an exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes and produces new new combinations of alleles
Thomas Morgan Hunt
Mendel's law of independent assortment still holds true but, chromosomes assort independently, not the genes.
an organism with cells characteristic of all life forms except primitive microorganisms such as bacteria
only certain hydrogen bonds can form between bases (adenine can only go with thymine and guanine can only go with cytosine)
1. the DNA molecule separates into two strands
2. it then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing
it joins individual nucleotides to produce DNA molecules. it helps to maximize the odds that each molecule is a perfect copy of the original.
RNA vs. DNA: The Difference
1. the sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose
2.RNA is single stranded, therefore no double helix
3. Contains uracil instead of thymine
carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
an enzyme that binds to DNA and separates DNA strands during transcription (unzips the DNA)
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