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Principle of Independent Assortment

states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes

incomplete dominance

neither allele is truly dominant. A heterozygote's phenotype is a mixture of both traits (RRxR'R'=RR')


both alleles are dominant. there's a presentation of both traits in a heterozygote (RRxWW=RW or red and white spots)

multiple alleles

there are more than two alleles available for the trait. ex: coat color in rabbits (refer to notes)

polygenic inheritance

traits are controlled by more than one gene. ex: skin, hair, eye color, height weight, etc. traits with lots of variation.


A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

SRY gene

causes gonads to become testes rather than ovaries


when homologs (paired chromosomes) fail to separate during meiosis. daughter cells have too many or too few chromosomes

Blood types

Type A: AA or AO, Type B: BB or BO, Type O: OO Type AB: AB

sex linked traits

traits that are dominant or recessive depending on gender, disorder pertinent to gender, ie females cant be colorblind..traits can only be carried or present on X or female gene

genetic disorders and diseases


sex linkage

an association between genes in sex chromosomes that makes some characteristics appear more frequently in one sex than in the other

sickle cell

Deformed red blood cells that can lead to numerous symptoms and caused by a genetic mutation in the hemoglobin protein. AA= normal hemoglobin AS= sickle cell trait SS= full disease

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