b. distended or full bladder, kink or blockage in the catheter, bladder infections, pressure ulcers, extreme temperature changes, tight clothes, ingrown toe nail
c. high BP, severe headache, blurred vision, stuffy nose, profuse sweating, goose bumps BELOW level of lesion, vasodilation (flushing) ABOVE level of lesion
e. lying a pt down
-Grade1: no LOC, symptoms resolve <15 min, return to play after 1 wk of rest
-Grade2: transient confusion, >15 min, poor concentration, amnesia, CT scan, return to play after 2 weeks if asymptomatic with rest and play
-Grade3: LOC, ER, return to play when symptom free at least 1 month, diffuse axonal injury
• Level I: no response. Patient does not respond to external stimuli and appears asleep.
• Level II: Generalized response. Patient reacts to external stimuli in nonspecific, inconsistent, and non-purposeful manner with stereotypic and limited response
• Level III: Localized response. Patient responds specifically and inconsistently with delays to stimuli, but may follow simple commands for motor actions.
• Level IV: Confused/agitated. Patient exhibits bizarre, non-purposeful incoherent or inappropriate behaviors, has no short-term recall, attention is short and nonselective.
• Level V: Confused/inappropriate. Patient gives random, fragmented, and nonpurposeful responses to complex or unstructured stimuli—simple commands are followed consistently, memory and selective attention are impaired, and new information is not retained.
• Level VI: Confused/appropriate. Patient gives context appropriate, goal-directed response, dependent upon external input for direction. There is carry-over for relearned but not for new tasks, and recent memory problems persist.
• Level VII: Appropriate/automatic. Patient behaves appropriately in familiar settings, performs daily routines automatically, and shows carry-over for new learning at lower than normal rates. Patient initiates social interactions, but judgement remains impaired.
• Level VIII: Appropriate/purposeful. Patient oriented and responds to the environment but abstract reasoning abilities are decreased relative to premorbid levels.
7th EditionJulie S Snyder, Linda Lilley, Shelly Collins
7th EditionJulie S Snyder, Mariann M Harding
7th EditionGary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
1st EditionPaula Manuel Bostwick