The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history; It began in Italy around 1300; this was fostered by thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the classical heritage of Greece and Rome
the movement during the Renaissance focusing of human potential and achievements, which was inspired by the study of classical texts (scholarly Greek works); humanists studied these texts to understand ancient Greek values and ideas, and this influenced artists, architects, and education -- the study of history, literature and philosophy, now called the humanities.
a person who supports the arts or other activities by supplying money for them; during the Renaissance, popes beautified Rome by spending huge amounts of money for art; they financially supported artists, and merchants and wealthy families also supported artists; they had their portraits painted, and they donated art to the city.
an artistic technique which indicates three dimensions (three dimensional artwork); It is based on optical illusion -- parallel lines stretch away from a viewer and seem to draw together until they meet on a spot on the horizon called the vanishing point.
in Greek, it means "no place," but in English it has come to mean and "ideal" place because of the book by Thomas More who wrote the book "Utopia" about an imaginary land inhabited by a peace-loving people. More was concerned with society's flaws.
invented by Gutenberg in the 1440s; it is a machine that presses paper against a tray full of inked movable type; Gutenberg first used it to print the complete Bible -- the first full-sized book printed with movable type
-- had a revolutionary impact of European society, enabling hundreds of copies of a single work
--reduced prices of books so people could buy them
--quickly spread to other cities (by 1500, 250 cities had printed between 9 and 10 million books)
the first full sized book printed with movable type the press was made by Johann Gutenberg, a craftsman from germany; his press pressed paper against a tray full of inked movable type
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The churches would release sinners from forming the penalty (such as, saying certain prayers) that a priest had imposed for sins. The practice led to the Reformation. Started by Johann Tetzel.
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt by Martin Luther to reform the Roman Catholic Church (initially because he was angry about indulgences, and later because he wanted reforms from the church) and resulted in the creation of Christian churches (such as Lutheran) that did not accept the Pope's authority
A member of the religious group that grew from Martin Luther's attempts to reform the Catholic Church; Luther did not believe that people needed priests to interpret the bible for them; people could win salvation only by faith in G-d's gift of foregiveness; Church teachings should be clearly based on the words and the bible; the pope and church traditions were false authorities; Luther condemned indulgences.
Initially, German princes who remained loyal to the pope and agreed to join forces against Luther's ideas were known as protestants (because they "protested" against Luther); eventually, the term came to refer to all Christians who belonged to non-catholic churches, including Lutherans. The Protestant Church is founded on the principles of the Reformation.
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany. It was agreed that the religion of each German state was to be decided by its ruler.
Relating to the Church of England, run by Queen Elizabeth I.; the only "legal" church in England in 1559; people were required to attend its services or pay a fine.
doctrine of John Calvin (in 1536) that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god; Calvin said that G-d chooses very few people to save -- these are the "elect"
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born).
Calvin ran the city of Geneva, Switzerland in accordance with a strict code -- everyone had to attend religion classes, wear dull colored clothing, follow strict rules -- high moral code, and tough punishments
Many Protestant churches today trace their roots to Calvin, although many have softened their strict teachings
-- In France, his followers were called Huguenots
a member of a Protestant church governed by Presbyters (elders) and founded on the teachings of John Knox; John Knox put Calvin's ideas from Geneva to work in Scotland; each community church was governed by a small group of laymen called elders of presbytes; Calvinism became Scotland's official religion. Followers of Knox becamse Presbyterian
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Ignatius of Loyola was a Catholic Reformer who laid out a day by day plan of meditation, prayer and study.
Pope Paul III (1534-1549) -- four important steps towards reform:
-- investigated indulgences and other abuses
-- approved the Jesuit Order
-- Ordered Inquisition to seeks out and punish Heresy in Papal territory
-- started Council of Trent (meeting of church leaders to agree on certain church doctrines and rules about the Church)
Followers of Ignatius of Loyola -- concentrated on three activities:
-- founded superb schools in Europe (both classical studies and theology)
-- mission of converting non-Christians to Catholicism (sent out missionaries)
-- Stop Protestantism from spreading
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
William the Conqueror
1027-1087 Norman king in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo-Saxon king, to become the first Norman king of england
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights