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38 terms

Ecology terms

Ecology terms
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abiotic factors
something that is not, will not, or was not alive (e.g. temperature)
biotic factors
something that is, will be, or was alive (e.g. plant)
organism
any living thing (e.g. cat)
species
many of the same organisms
community
groups of species, no non-living things
population
species in a specific area
ecosystem
an area where living and non-living things interact
ecology
the study of organisms in their environments
limiting factors
something that limits the population of an organism
natural selection
animals with better characteristics will survive, those without will die off; survival of the fittest
adaptations
specific changes an animal undergoes to survive
niche
how the organism makes its living (includes type of food, how to get food, predatory animals, interactions)
habitat
an area that provides a living thing everything it needs
competition
fight for shelter, food, water, mates, territory, etc.
symbiosis
a relation between two organisms (e.g. mosquitoes & humans)
predation
the act of killing and eating an animal for survival
predator
the killer and eater
prey
the eaten
mutualism
both animals benefit from this symbiotic relationship
commensalism
one is benefiting, the other is not harmed nor benefited in this symbiotic relationship
parasitism
one is benefiting, the other is harmed in this symbiotic relationship
parasite
the one who benefits from parasitism
host
the one who is harmed in parasitism
producer
an organism that can make its own food (e.g. plant)
scavenger
an organism that eats off of previously killed animals (e.g. hyena)
decomposer
an organism that breaks down dead stuff and returns nutrients to the soil (e.g. worms)
consumer
an organism that has to eat for food and energy (animals)
primary consumer
an organism that gets plants' energy first (e.g. deer)
secondary consumer
an organism that gets plants' energy second (e.g. lion)
carnivore
an organism that only eats meat (e.g. lion)
omnivore
an organism that can eat plants and meat (e.g. human)
herbivore
an organism that only eats plants (e.g. deer)
food chain
a lateral representation of the flow of energy
food web
multiple food chains connected together; much more complex than a food chain
water cycle
the _____ _____ involves evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
evaporation
when water goes up into the atmosphere as a result of heat; gets turned into gas (water vapor)
condensation
when water vapor reaches a temperature cold enough to return to a liquid state
precipitation
when enough water has collected in the atmosphere and falls from atmosphere (e.g. rain)