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Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.


capable of being dissolved


dissolving medium


substance which is dissolved


heterogeneous mixtures that contain fairly large particles.


heterogeneous mixture with particles larger than those in a solution and smaller than those in a suspension

Tyndall Effect

helps you distinguish between a solution and a colloid. You shine a light into it and if it reflects the light its a colloid.


a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electricity.

3 main factors that effect how fast something dissolves

1. surface area


describes how much solute can be dissolved in a particular solvent at a particular temperature

unsaturated solution

more solute can be dissolved

saturated solution

no more solute can be dissolved

super saturated solutions

something that has more solute dissolved in it than it should. It has more dissolved solute than a saturated solution.

How to make a super-saturated solution

take the saturated solution, heat it up, saturate it at the new temperature, and slowly cool it down.

quantifying solubility

we quantify solubility by stating the mass of solute that we can dissolve at a particular mass of solvent at a particular temperature


universe likes chaos


liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion


liquids that are not soluble in each other

Henry's Law

The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.


a rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved


a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent of solution


number of moles or solute/liters of solution

dilution equation

v1m1=v2m2 only works with water


moles of solute/kg of solvent

mass percent

mass of solute/mass of solution X 100


the separation of ions that occur when an ionic compound dissolves


a solid produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution

net ionic equation

includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution

spectator ions

ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction


the process whereby solute molecules become ions by the action of the solvent

colligative properties

properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity

freezing point depression


boiling point elevation


bronsted-lowry acid

a molecule or ion that is a proton donor

bronsted-lowry base

a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor

conjugate base

that which remains after a bronsted-lowry acid has givem up a proton.

conjugate acid

that which is formed when a bronsted-lowry base gains a proton

Amphoteric compounds

can be either acids or bases depending upon what its reacting with


the pH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration

common household acids

• Citric acid (oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit)
• Salicylic acid (face soap)
• Hydrochloric acid (stomach)
• Carbonic acid (soda)
• Acetic acid (vinegar)
• Ascorbic acid (preservative)
• Phosphoric acid (soda)
• Benzoic acid (soda)
• Sorbic acid (soda)
• Tannic acid (tea)
• Lactic acid (milk/lactose)
• Tartaric acid (baking)
• Malic acid (apples, fruitjuice)

common household bases

• Ammonia
• Sodium hydroxide (drain cleaner)
• Antacids (calcium hydroxide)
• Milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide)
• Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
• Bleach (sodium hydrochlorite)
• Lye (sodium hydroxide)

properties of acids

1. Aqueous solutions taste sour
2. Acids change the color of indicators
3. Acids will react with group 1 and group 2 metals to produce hydrogen
4. Acids will react with bases to make water and salt
5. Aqueous solutions of acids are conductive

binary acid

Has two elements, one being hydrogen


Has oxygen in it, usually a polyatomic ion and hydrogen

five commonly produced acids

Produced for industrial purposes
Sulfuric acid-most common, used in fertilizer and refining petroleum
Nitric acid-used in explosives
Phosphoric acids- fertilizer, soda, detergent
Hydrochloric acid- cleaning solvent
Acetic acid-food

5 properties of bases

1.aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter
2.change the color of indicators
3.aqueous solutions of bases are slippery
4.bases react with acids to produce water and a salt
5.bases conduct electricity.

Arrhenius acid

chemical compound that increases the concentration if hydrogen+ ions in aqueous solutions

Arrhenius base

a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydroxide in aqueous solutions.

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