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48 terms

Chemistry test 5/21

STUDY
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solution
Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.
soluble
capable of being dissolved
solvent
dissolving medium
solute
substance which is dissolved
suspensions
heterogeneous mixtures that contain fairly large particles.
colloid
heterogeneous mixture with particles larger than those in a solution and smaller than those in a suspension
Tyndall Effect
helps you distinguish between a solution and a colloid. You shine a light into it and if it reflects the light its a colloid.
electrolytes
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electricity.
3 main factors that effect how fast something dissolves
1. surface area
2.temperature
3.agitate
solubility
describes how much solute can be dissolved in a particular solvent at a particular temperature
unsaturated solution
more solute can be dissolved
saturated solution
no more solute can be dissolved
super saturated solutions
something that has more solute dissolved in it than it should. It has more dissolved solute than a saturated solution.
How to make a super-saturated solution
take the saturated solution, heat it up, saturate it at the new temperature, and slowly cool it down.
quantifying solubility
we quantify solubility by stating the mass of solute that we can dissolve at a particular mass of solvent at a particular temperature
entropy
universe likes chaos
miscible
liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion
immiscible
liquids that are not soluble in each other
Henry's Law
The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.
Effervescence
a rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved
concentration
a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent of solution
Molarity
number of moles or solute/liters of solution
dilution equation
v1m1=v2m2 only works with water
molality
moles of solute/kg of solvent
mass percent
mass of solute/mass of solution X 100
dissociation
the separation of ions that occur when an ionic compound dissolves
precipitate
a solid produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution
net ionic equation
includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution
spectator ions
ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction
ionization
the process whereby solute molecules become ions by the action of the solvent
colligative properties
properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity
freezing point depression
Ksm
k=-1.86
m=molality
boiling point elevation
Kbm
k=.51
m=molality
bronsted-lowry acid
a molecule or ion that is a proton donor
bronsted-lowry base
a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor
conjugate base
that which remains after a bronsted-lowry acid has givem up a proton.
conjugate acid
that which is formed when a bronsted-lowry base gains a proton
Amphoteric compounds
can be either acids or bases depending upon what its reacting with
pH
the pH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration
common household acids
• Citric acid (oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit)
• Salicylic acid (face soap)
• Hydrochloric acid (stomach)
• Carbonic acid (soda)
• Acetic acid (vinegar)
• Ascorbic acid (preservative)
• Phosphoric acid (soda)
• Benzoic acid (soda)
• Sorbic acid (soda)
• Tannic acid (tea)
• Lactic acid (milk/lactose)
• Tartaric acid (baking)
• Malic acid (apples, fruitjuice)
common household bases
• Ammonia
• Sodium hydroxide (drain cleaner)
• Antacids (calcium hydroxide)
• Milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide)
• Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
• Bleach (sodium hydrochlorite)
• Lye (sodium hydroxide)
properties of acids
1. Aqueous solutions taste sour
2. Acids change the color of indicators
3. Acids will react with group 1 and group 2 metals to produce hydrogen
4. Acids will react with bases to make water and salt
5. Aqueous solutions of acids are conductive
binary acid
Has two elements, one being hydrogen
oxyacid
Has oxygen in it, usually a polyatomic ion and hydrogen
five commonly produced acids
Produced for industrial purposes
Sulfuric acid-most common, used in fertilizer and refining petroleum
Nitric acid-used in explosives
Phosphoric acids- fertilizer, soda, detergent
Hydrochloric acid- cleaning solvent
Acetic acid-food
5 properties of bases
1.aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter
2.change the color of indicators
3.aqueous solutions of bases are slippery
4.bases react with acids to produce water and a salt
5.bases conduct electricity.
Arrhenius acid
chemical compound that increases the concentration if hydrogen+ ions in aqueous solutions
Arrhenius base
a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydroxide in aqueous solutions.