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heterogeneous mixture with particles larger than those in a solution and smaller than those in a suspension
helps you distinguish between a solution and a colloid. You shine a light into it and if it reflects the light its a colloid.
describes how much solute can be dissolved in a particular solvent at a particular temperature
super saturated solutions
something that has more solute dissolved in it than it should. It has more dissolved solute than a saturated solution.
How to make a super-saturated solution
take the saturated solution, heat it up, saturate it at the new temperature, and slowly cool it down.
we quantify solubility by stating the mass of solute that we can dissolve at a particular mass of solvent at a particular temperature
The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.
net ionic equation
includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution
ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction
properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity
the pH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration
common household acids
• Citric acid (oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit)
• Salicylic acid (face soap)
• Hydrochloric acid (stomach)
• Carbonic acid (soda)
• Acetic acid (vinegar)
• Ascorbic acid (preservative)
• Phosphoric acid (soda)
• Benzoic acid (soda)
• Sorbic acid (soda)
• Tannic acid (tea)
• Lactic acid (milk/lactose)
• Tartaric acid (baking)
• Malic acid (apples, fruitjuice)
common household bases
• Sodium hydroxide (drain cleaner)
• Antacids (calcium hydroxide)
• Milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide)
• Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
• Bleach (sodium hydrochlorite)
• Lye (sodium hydroxide)
properties of acids
1. Aqueous solutions taste sour
2. Acids change the color of indicators
3. Acids will react with group 1 and group 2 metals to produce hydrogen
4. Acids will react with bases to make water and salt
5. Aqueous solutions of acids are conductive
five commonly produced acids
Produced for industrial purposes
Sulfuric acid-most common, used in fertilizer and refining petroleum
Nitric acid-used in explosives
Phosphoric acids- fertilizer, soda, detergent
Hydrochloric acid- cleaning solvent
5 properties of bases
1.aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter
2.change the color of indicators
3.aqueous solutions of bases are slippery
4.bases react with acids to produce water and a salt
5.bases conduct electricity.
chemical compound that increases the concentration if hydrogen+ ions in aqueous solutions
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