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The Black Death

An epidemic of bubonic plague that ravaged most of Europe in the mid 14th century.

Joan of Arc

The patron saint of France in the 100 Years War. Peasant girl told by God to offer her services to Carles VII; routed the English and French allies at Orleans in 1429. Helped France a lot in the war, regained captured land.

Great Schism

A division in the Roman Catholic Church between 1378 and 1417, when two (and for a brief period, three) popes competed for the allegiance of European Christians; a consequence of the Babylonian Captivity of the papacy in Avignon, southern France.


From Scandinavia, invaded/ conquered Paris and Seville, eastern England, Brittany and Normandy (France), Holland, and Iceland. Adopted Christianity. Governed by intimidation instead of plundering.

Investiture Controversy

A dispute between the Holy Roman Emperor and the pope in the 11th and early 12th centuries about which authority (pope or emperor) should appoint German bishops.


The urban upper middle class; usually commercial or professional.


Medieval European wars waged principally to recover the Holy Lands (and Spain and Portugal) from Muslim control beginning in 1096. Contributed to peace in Europe because it allowed ambitious men to fight for the church.

Gothic style

An artisitc style, found notably in architecture, that came into general European usage in the 13th century. Flood illumination through windows/portals, lots of decoration, arches, butresses, vaulting.

Hundred Years' War

Conflict between kings/nobles of England and France (English Edward III and French Philip VI) because of economic factors. Cost a lot money for both sides.

Babylonian Captivity

The popes' stay in Avignon, southern France, caused Great Schism, a division in th Roaman Catholic Church between 1378 and 1417, when two (and for a brief period, three) popes competed for the allegiance of European Christians.

Conciliar Movement

The attempt to substitute councils of church leaders for papal authority in lae medieval Christianity. Wanted to reform church doctrine and the papal government.


Name of unknown origin given to the English religious rebels of the 1380s who later protested against the privileges pf the clergy and were vigorously persecuted.


Medieval urban organizations that controlled the production and sale prices of many goods and services. Restricted competition and ensured socioeconomic security.


A French peasant rebellion against noble landlords during the 14th century.

William the Conqueror (Battle of Hastings-1066)

William of Normandy from France invadedand conquered England.


Wrong beliefs in religious doctrines.


System in which the land is not unified by the government and pieces of it are owned by lords. Vassals and serfs (peasants) live and work on the lords land. Vassals were given fiefs- protection, rights, and land, in return for loyalty/service. Rules were set by tradition. Manors were castles/mansions where lords/vassals lived.

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