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128 terms

The Muscular System

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abduction
the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
Achilles tendinitis
a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon
adduction
the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
adhesion
a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally
antispasmodic
administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder
ataxia
the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement
atonic
lacking normal muscle tone or strength
atrophy
weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures
biceps brachii
biceps, formed from two divisions
bradykinesia
extreme slowness in movement
cardioplegia
paralysis of heart muscle (cardiac arrest)
carpal tunnel release
the surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve nerve pressure
carpal tunnel syndrome
occurs when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen
chronic fatigue syndrome
a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems
circumduction
the circular movement at the far end of a limb
compartment syndrome
involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles
contraction
the tightening of a muscle
contracture
the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues
cramp
a localized muscle spasm named for its cause
deep tendon reflexes
tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon
deltoid muscle
forms the muscular cap of the shoulder
depression
the act of lowering a body part
dorsiflexion
bends the foot upward at the ankle
dyskinesia
the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm
dystaxia
a mild form of ataxia
dystonia
a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
electroneuromyography
a diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle
electromyography
a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
elevation
the act of raising or lifting a body part
epicondylitis
inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
ergonomics
the study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
exercise physiologist
a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness
extension
increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb
fascia
the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles or groups of muscles
fasciitis
inflammation of a fascia
fascioplasty
the surgical repair of fascia
fasciotomy
a surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure
fibromyalgia syndrome
a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms
flexion
decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint
ganglion cyst
a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist
gluteus maximus
the largest muscle of the buttock
hamstring group
located at the back of the upper leg, consists of three separate muscles: biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
hamstring injury
a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles
heel spur
a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia nears its attachment to the calcaneus bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis
hemiparesis
slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body
hemiplegia
total paralysis affecting only one side of the body
hyperextension
the extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit
hyperkinesia
abnormally increased muscle function or activity
hypertonia
a condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles
hypokinesia
abnormally decreased muscle function or activity
hypotonia
a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
impingement syndrome
occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
insertion
the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bonen or tendon; the more moveable attachment, located farthest from the midline of the body
intermittent claudication
pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest
muscle fibers
the long, slender cells that make up muscles
muscle innervations
the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve
muscle tone
the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible
muscular dystrophy
a group of more than 30 genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system
myalgia
tenderness or pain in the muscles
myasthenia gravis
a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles
myocele
the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it
myectomy
the surgical excision of a portion of a muscle
myocardial muscles
form the muscular walls of the heart
myoclonus
the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
myofascial
pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia
myofascial pain syndrome
a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body
myofascial release
a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ), and carpal tunnel syndrome
myolysis
the degeneration of muscle tissue
myomalacia
abnormal softening of muscle tissue
myoparesis
a weakness or slight muscular paralysis
myorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a muscle wound
myorrhexis
the rupture or tearing of a muscle
myotomy
a surgical incision into a muscle
myotonia
a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction
myoplasty
the surgical repair of a muscle
neurologist
a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function
neuromuscular
pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle
neuromuscular blocker
a drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles
nocturnal myoclonus
jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep
oblique
slanted or at an angle
occupational therapy
consists of activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform the activities of daily living (ADL)
origin
the place where the muscle begins; the less moveable attachment located nearest the midline of the body
overuse injuries
minor tissue injuries that have not been given time to heal
overuse tendinitis
inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint
paralysis
the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply
paraplegia
the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
physiatrist
a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function
physical therapy
treatment to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of exercise
plantar fasciitis
an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot
plantar flexion
bends the foot downward at the ankle
polymyositis
a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body
pronation
the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four extremeties
range of motion testing (ROM)
a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength
rectus
in straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body
relaxation
when a muscle returns to its original form
repetitive stress disorders
a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports
rheumatologist
a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues
RICE
Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
rotation
turns a bone on its own axis
rotator cuff tendinitis
an inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff
ruptured rotator cuff
develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues
sarcopenia
the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging
shin splint
a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia
singultus
myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm (hiccups)
skeletal muscle relaxant
administered to relax certain muscles and to relieve the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries
skeletal muscles
attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible
smooth muscles
located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands
spasm
a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles
spasmodic torticollis
a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
sphincter
a ring-like muscle that tightly constructs the opening of a passageway
spinal cord injury
the type of paralysis is determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury
sports medicine physician
specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles
sprain
an injury of a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament
strain
an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon
supination
the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand, or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward
tendinitis
an inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
tendon
a narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
tenectomy
the surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath
tenodesis
the surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
tenodynia
pain in a tendon
tenolysis
the release of a tendon from adhesions
tenoplasty
the surgical repair of a tendon
tenorrhaphy
surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon
tenotomy
the surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle
therapeutic ultrasound
utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue
transverse
in a crosswise direction
triceps brachii
triceps, formed from three divisions